File Name: insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease .zip
Diabetes mellitus DM , commonly known as diabetes , is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin , or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections.
Insulin Resistance pp Cite as. The worldwide prevalence of obesity doubled from to It is well recognized that hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance IR , and obesity increase the risk for cardiovascular CV events in adults. There are numerous proposed mechanisms to explain the association between IR and early CV disease. These include actions at the level of the vascular endothelium, including alterations in the normal vasodilatory nitric oxide response, increased proinflammatory chemokines, and decreased levels of adiponectin an anti-inflammatory adipocyte.
Gejl, H. Stecher, B. Bibby, N. Hansen, A. Gjedde, J.
Jane E. Reusch, Cecilia C. Recent prospective clinical trials have failed to confirm a unique benefit from normalization of glycemia on cardiovascular disease outcomes, despite evidence from basic vascular biology, epidemiological, and cohort studies. Keyword searches included: atherosclerosis, cardiovascular, and glucose. Epidemiological, cohort, and interventional data on cardiovascular disease outcomes and glycemic control were reviewed along with analysis of recent reviews on this topic. High glucose activates a proatherogenic phenotype in all cell types in the vessel wall including endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and platelets, leading to a feedforward atherogenic response.
The following statistics speak loud and clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease CVD and diabetes. Diabetes is treatable, but even when glucose levels are under control it greatly increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. For overall cardiovascular health, the American Heart Association recommends : At least minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity per week or an equivalent combination of moderate-and vigorous-intensity activities , plus moderate-to high-intensity muscle-strengthening activity at least 2 days per week for additional health benefits. Individuals with insulin resistance or diabetes in combination with one or more of these risk factors are at even greater risk of heart disease or stroke. Your health care provider will do periodic testing to assess whether you have developed any of these risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease.
Elevated levels of LDL, smoking, elevated blood pressure and type 1 and type 2 diabetes, are well known risk factors for CVD, however, insulin.
Metrics details. For many years, cardiovascular disease CVD has been the leading cause of death around the world. Often associated with CVD are comorbidities such as obesity, abnormal lipid profiles and insulin resistance.
Type 2 diabetes is an impairment in the way the body regulates and uses sugar glucose as a fuel.