File Name: feminist epistemology and philosophy of science .zip
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Feminist epistemology is an outgrowth of both feminist theorizing about gender and traditional epistemological concerns. Feminist epistemology is a loosely organized approach to epistemology , rather than a particular school or theory. What is common to feminist epistemologies is an emphasis on the epistemic salience of gender and the use of gender as an analytic category in discussions, criticisms, and reconstructions of epistemic practices, norms, and ideals. While feminist epistemology is not easily and simply characterized, feminist approaches to epistemology tend to share an emphasis on the ways in which knowers are particular and concrete, rather than abstract and universalizable. Feminist epistemologies take seriously the ways in which knowers are enmeshed in social relations that are generally hierarchical while also being historically and culturally specific. The themes which characterize feminist engagements with epistemology are not necessarily unique to feminist epistemologies, since these themes also crop up in science studies more generally, as well as in social epistemology. Feminist epistemologies are distinctive, however, in the use of gender as a category of epistemic analysis and re-construction.
Cartesian epistemology thus attributes little, if any, cognitive significance to a knower's embodiment. This article examines a number of recent challenges to Cartesian epistemology. It focuses on feminist epistemology. But while feminist philosophers have been the most visible and vocal critics of Cartesian epistemology, they are not the only ones. Psychologists like Richard Nisbett and empirically minded analytic philosophers like Stephen Stich have also raised objections, and this article talks about these as well. Keywords: Cartesian epistemology , feminist epistemology , feminist philosophers , externalism , naturalized epistemology. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase.
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Epistemology , the philosophical study of the nature, origin, and limits of human knowledge. Epistemology has a long history within Western philosophy , beginning with the ancient Greeks and continuing to the present. Along with metaphysics , logic , and ethics , it is one of the four main branches of philosophy, and nearly every great philosopher has contributed to it. Why should there be a discipline such as epistemology? Aristotle — bce provided the answer when he said that philosophy begins in a kind of wonder or puzzlement.
Feminist epistemology is an examination of epistemology the study of knowledge from a feminist standpoint. Feminist epistemology emphasizes how important ethical and political values are in shaping epistemic practices, and interpretations of evidence. Feminist epistemology studies how gender influences our understanding of knowledge, justification and theory of knowledge; it describes how knowledge and justification disadvantage women. Scientists of feminist epistemology claim that some theories of knowledge discriminate against women by preventing them from inquiry and presenting women as an inferior, because these theories of knowledge satisfy only male interests, which strengthen gender hierarchies.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This book argues that feminist science fiction shares the same concerns as feminist epistemology—challenges to the sex of the knower, the valuation of the abstract over the concrete, the dismissal of the physical, the focus on rationality and reason, the devaluation of embodied knowledge, and the containment of some bodies. Ritch Calvin argues that feminist science fiction asks questions of epistemology because those questions are central to making claims of subjectivity and identity.
Feminist philosophy of science is a branch of feminist philosophy that seeks to understand how the acquirement of knowledge through scientific means has been influenced by notions of gender and gender roles in society. Feminist philosophers of science question how scientific research and scientific knowledge itself may be influenced and possibly compromised by the social and professional framework within which that research and knowledge is established and exists. The intersection of gender and science allows feminist philosophers to reexamine fundamental questions and truths in the field of science to reveal any signs of gender biases. Feminist epistemology often emphasizes "situated knowledge"  that hinges on one's individual perspectives on a subject. Feminist philosophers often highlight the under-representation of female scientists in academia and the possibility that science currently has androcentric biases. Scientific theory has been accused of being more compatible with male cognitive styles and reasoning. Feminist epistemology suggests that integrating feminine modes of thought and logic that are undervalued by current scientific theory will enable improvement and broadening of scientific perspectives.
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Сердце Беккера подпрыгнуло. - Очень хорошенькие? - повторил он с нарочитым немецким акцентом. - Рыженькие. - Да, а как зовут вашего брата. Я скажу вам, кто его сегодня сопровождает, и мы сможем прислать ее к вам завтра. - Клаус Шмидт, - выпалил Беккер имя из старого учебника немецкого. Долгая пауза.
Подумала. Quis custodiet ipsos custodes. Эти слова буквально преследовали. Она попыталась выбросить их из головы. Мысли ее вернулись к Дэвиду. Сьюзен надеялась, что с ним все в порядке. Ей трудно было поверить, что он в Испании.
И все же… секрет Цифровой крепости будет служить Хейлу единственной гарантией, и он, быть может, будет вести себя благоразумно.