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Anderson Award. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 1 December ; 76 4 : — After completing architectural studies in the United States in , Muzharul Islam returned home to Pakistan to find the country embroiled in acrimonious politics of national identity. The young architect began his design career in the midst of bitterly divided notions of national origin and destiny, and his architectural work reflected this political debate. With this iconoclastic building, Islam sought to achieve two distinctive goals: to introduce the aesthetic tenets of modern architecture to East Pakistan and to reject all references to colonial-era Indo-Saracenic architecture.
Nationalism has been much explored with relation to the decolonisation process. However, there is disagreement as to what role it played and how it functioned. In assessing the relationship between nationalism and colonial difference, this essay will draw on the work of Partha Chatterjee to argue that a distinction might be drawn between political and cultural nationalism. This contradictory process continues to have important consequences for Africa today. Many of the primary figures in African anti-colonial nationalism, including Kambarage Nyerere of Tanzania and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, spoke the language of their colonial masters and had lived in Europe or North America. Drawing on the knowledge and experiences they gained, these indigenous intelligentsia were able to forge a nationalist consciousness and, having been denied positions of power by the colonial regimes, they became the spokesmen for anti-colonial nationalism. The Subaltern Studies collective, and in particular Partha Chatterjee, have sought to challenge this conception.
The Bengal School of Art commonly referred as Bengal School ,  was an art movement and a style of Indian painting that originated in Bengal , primarily Kolkata and Shantiniketan , and flourished throughout the Indian subcontinent , during the British Raj in the early 20th century. Also known as 'Indian style of painting' in its early days, it was associated with Indian nationalism swadeshi and led by Abanindranath Tagore , but was also promoted and supported by British arts administrators like E. Havell , the principal of the Government College of Art, Kolkata from ; eventually it led to the development of the modern Indian painting. The Bengal school arose as an avant garde and nationalist movement reacting against the academic art styles previously promoted in India, both by Indian artists such as Raja Ravi Varma and in British art schools. Following the influence of Indian spiritual ideas in the West , the British art teacher Ernest Binfield Havell attempted to reform the teaching methods at the Calcutta School of Art by encouraging students to imitate Mughal miniatures. Havell was supported by the artist Abanindranath Tagore , a nephew of the poet Rabindranath Tagore. Tagore painted a number of works influenced by Mughal art , a style that he and Havell believed to be expressive of India's distinct spiritual qualities, as opposed to the "materialism" of the West.
Abdul, M. Social and cultural transformations in a Muslim Nation. Ahmad, A. Islamic Reform Movements. Aneesh, A.
Art and Nationalism in Colonial India, Occidental Orientation Summary: From stpetersnt.org: "An original study of the history of modern Indian art, this.
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In an ideal liberal democracy where citizens are guaranteed expansive liberties, the state is left with limited avenues to control its citizens. Censorship is limited by laws of freedom of speech and press, surveillance is limited by the right to privacy, and so on. And yet this is not the reality confronting India today, as in spite of an elaborate constitution, the contemporary state is omnipotent and omnipresent.
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My carefully laid plan of allotting 20 literature reviews per proposed chapter is gently going astray, but fruitfully so.