File Name: rural development principles and practice .zip
The United Nations defines community development as "a process where community members come together to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems. Community development is also understood as a professional discipline, and is defined by the International Association for Community Development as "a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes participative democracy, sustainable development, rights, economic opportunity, equality and social justice, through the organisation, education and empowerment of people within their communities, whether these be of locality, identity or interest, in urban and rural settings".
Community development seeks to empower individuals and groups of people with the skills they need to effect change within their communities. These skills are often created through the formation of social groups working for a common agenda. Community developers must understand both how to work with individuals and how to affect communities' positions within the context of larger social institutions.
Community development as a term has taken off widely in anglophone countries, i. It is also used in some countries in Eastern Europe with active community development associations in Hungary and Romania. The Community Development Journal , published by Oxford University Press , since has aimed to be the major forum for research and dissemination of international community development theory and practice. Community development approaches are recognised internationally.
There are a number of institutions of higher education offer community development as an area of study and research such as the University of Toronto , Leiden University , SOAS University of London , and the Balsillie School of International Affairs , among others. The United Nations defines community development broadly as "a process where community members come together to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems.
The values and ethos that should underpin practice can be expressed as: Commitment to rights, solidarity, democracy, equality, environmental and social justice. The purpose of community development is understood by IACD as being to work with communities to achieve participative democracy, sustainable development, rights, economic opportunity, equality and social justice.
This practice is carried out by people in different roles and contexts, including people explicitly called professional community workers and people taking on essentially the same role but with a different job title , together with professionals in other occupations ranging from social work , adult education , youth work , health disciplines , environmental education , local economic development , to urban planning , regeneration , architecture and more who seek to apply community development values and adopt community development methods.
Community development practice also encompasses a range of occupational settings and levels from development roles working with communities, through to managerial and strategic community planning roles.
The Community Development Challenge report, which was produced by a working party comprising leading UK organizations in the field including the now defunct Community Development Foundation, the now defunct Community Development Exchange and the now defunct Federation for Community Development Learning defines community development as:.
A set of values and practices which plays a special role in overcoming poverty and disadvantage, knitting society together at the grass roots and deepening democracy. There is a community development profession, defined by national occupational standards and a body of theory and experience going back the best part of a century. There are active citizens who use community development techniques on a voluntary basis, and there are also other professions and agencies which use a community development approach or some aspects of it.
Its key purpose is to build communities based on justice, equality and mutual respect. Community development involves changing the relationships between ordinary people and people in positions of power, so that everyone can take part in the issues that affect their lives. It starts from the principle that within any community there is a wealth of knowledge and experience which, if used in creative ways, can be channeled into collective action to achieve the communities' desired goals.
Community development practitioners work alongside people in communities to help build relationships with key people and organizations and to identify common concerns.
They create opportunities for :the community to learn new skills and, by enabling people to act together, community development practitioners help to foster social inclusion and equality. There are numerous overlapping approaches to community development. They include:. There are a myriad of job titles for community development workers and their employers include public authorities and voluntary or non-governmental organisations, funded by the state and by independent grant making bodies.
Since the nineteen seventies the prefix word 'community' has also been adopted by several other occupations from the police and health workers to planners and architects, who have been influenced by community development approaches.
Amongst the earliest community development approaches were those developed in Kenya and British East Africa during the s. Community development practitioners have over many years developed a range of approaches for working within local communities and in particular with disadvantaged people. Since the nineteen sixties and seventies through the various anti poverty programmes in both developed and developing countries, community development practitioners have been influenced by structural analyses as to the causes of disadvantage and poverty i.
Thus the influence of such educators as Paulo Freire and his focus upon this work. Schumacher Small Is Beautiful. There are a number of international organisations that support community development, for example, Oxfam , UNICEF , The Hunger Project and Freedom from Hunger, run community development programs based upon community development initiatives for relief and prevention of malnutrition.
Since the Dragon Dreaming Project Management techniques have spread to 37 different countries and are engaged in an estimated 3, projects worldwide. In the 19th century, the work of the Welsh early socialist thinker Robert Owen — , sought to create a more perfect community. At New Lanark and at later communities such as Oneida in the USA and the New Australia Movement in Australia, groups of people came together to create utopian or intentional communities , with mixed success. In the United States in the s, the term "community development" began to complement and generally replace the idea of urban renewal , which typically focused on physical development projects often at the expense of working-class communities.
One of the earliest proponents of the term in the United States was social scientist William W. Biddle  In the late s, philanthropies such as the Ford Foundation and government officials such as Senator Robert F. Kennedy took an interest in local nonprofit organizations. A pioneer was the Bedford Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation in Brooklyn, which attempted to apply business and management skills to the social mission of uplifting low-income residents and their neighborhoods.
Eventually such groups became known as " Community development corporations " or CDCs. Federal laws beginning with the Housing and Community Development Act provided a way for state and municipal governments to channel funds to CDCs and other nonprofit organizations. National organizations such as the Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation founded in and now known as NeighborWorks America , the Local Initiatives Support Corporation LISC founded in , and the Enterprise Foundation founded in have built extensive networks of affiliated local nonprofit organizations to which they help provide financing for countless physical and social development programs in urban and rural communities.
The CDCs and similar organizations have been credited with starting the process that stabilized and revived seemingly hopeless inner city areas such as the South Bronx in New York City. In the UK, community development has had two main traditions. The first was as an approach for preparing for the independence of countries from the former British Empire in the s and s. Domestically it first came into public prominence with the Labour Government's anti deprivation programmes of the latter sixties and seventies.
The main example of this being the CDP Community Development Programme , which piloted local area based community development. This influenced a number of largely urban local authorities, in particular in Scotland with Strathclyde Region's major community development programme the largest at the time in Europe.
The Gulbenkian Foundation was a key funder of commissions and reports which influenced the development of community development in the UK from the latter sixties to the 80's. This included recommending that there be a national institute or centre for community development, able to support practice and to advise government and local authorities on policy.
This was formally set up in as the Community Development Foundation. In the Carnegie UK Trust established a Commission of Inquiry into the future of rural community development examining such issues as land reform and climate change. Carnegie funded over sixty rural community development action research projects across the UK and Ireland and national and international communities of practice to exchange experiences. This included the International Association for Community Development.
In a UK wide organisation responsible for setting professional training standards for all education and development practitioners working within local communities was established and recognised by the Labour Government. It was named after Paulo Freire. Its first chair was Charlie McConnell, the Chief Executive of the Scottish Community Education Council , who had played a lead role in bringing together a range of occupational interests under a single national training standards body, including community education , community development and development education.
The inclusion of community development was significant as it was initially uncertain as to whether it would join the NTO for Social Care. The Community Learning and Development NTO represented all the main employers, trades unions, professional associations and national development agencies working in this area across the four nations of the UK.
The NTO continued to recognise the range of different occupations within it, for example specialists who work primarily with young people, but all agreed that they shared a core set of professional approaches to their work.
The UK currently hosts the only global network of practitioners and activists working towards social justice through community development approach, the International Association for Community Development IACD. Community development in Canada has roots in the development of co-operatives, credit unions and caisses populaires. The Antigonish Movement which started in the s in Nova Scotia , through the work of Doctor Moses Coady and Father James Tompkins , has been particularly influential in the subsequent expansion of community economic development work across Canada.
Community development in Australia have often been focussed upon Aboriginal Australian communities, and during the period of the s to the early 21st century were funded through the Community Employment Development Program, where Aboriginal people could be employed in "a work for the dole" scheme, which gave the chance for non-government organisations to apply for a full or part-time worker funded by the Department for Social Security.
Dr Jim Ife, formerly of Curtin University , organised a ground breaking text-book on community development. Community planning techniques drawing on the history of utopian movements became important in the s and s in East Africa , where community development proposals were seen as a way of helping local people improve their own lives with indirect assistance from colonial authorities.
Mohandas K. Gandhi adopted African community development ideals as a basis of his South African Ashram, and then introduced it as a part of the Indian Swaraj movement, aiming at establishing economic interdependence at village level throughout India. With Indian independence , despite the continuing work of Vinoba Bhave in encouraging grassroots land reform , India under its first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru adopted a mixed-economy approach, mixing elements of socialism and capitalism.
During the fifties and sixties, India ran a massive community development programme with focus on rural development activities through government support. This was later expanded in scope and was called integrated rural development scheme [IRDP]. A large number of initiatives that can come under the community development umbrella have come up in recent years.
The main objective of community development in India remains to develop the villages and to help the villagers help themselves to fight against poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition, etc.
The beauty of Indian model of community development lies in the homogeneity of villagers and high level of participation. Community development became a part of the Ujamaa Villages established in Tanzania by Julius Nyerere , where it had some success in assisting with the delivery of education services throughout rural areas, but has elsewhere met with mixed success.
In the s and s, community development became a part of "Integrated Rural Development", a strategy promoted by United Nations Agencies and the World Bank.
Central to these policies of community development were:. In the s, following critiques of the mixed success of "top down" government programs, and drawing on the work of Robert Putnam , in the rediscovery of social capital , community development internationally became concerned with social capital formation.
In particular the outstanding success of the work of Muhammad Yunus in Bangladesh with the Grameen Bank from its inception in , has led to the attempts to spread microenterprise credit schemes around the world.
Yunus saw that social problems like poverty and disease were not being solved by the market system on its own. Thus, he established a banking system which lends to the poor with very little interest, allowing them access to entrepreneurship. Another alternative to "top down" government programs is the participatory government institution.
Participatory governance institutions are organizations which aim to facilitate the participation of citizens within larger decision making and action implementing processes in society. A case study done on municipal councils and social housing programs in Brazil found that the presence of participatory governance institutions supports the implementation of poverty alleviation programs by local governments. The " human scale development " work of Right Livelihood Award -winning Chilean economist Manfred Max Neef promotes the idea of development based upon fundamental human needs, which are considered to be limited, universal and invariant to all human beings being a part of our human condition.
He considers that poverty results from the failure to satisfy a particular human need, it is not just an absence of money. Whilst human needs are limited, Max Neef shows that the ways of satisfying human needs is potentially unlimited.
Satisfiers also have different characteristics: they can be violators or destroyers, pseudosatisfiers, inhibiting satisfiers, singular satisfiers, or synergic satisfiers. Max-Neef shows that certain satisfiers, promoted as satisfying a particular need, in fact inhibit or destroy the possibility of satisfying other needs: e. Synergic satisfiers, on the other hand, not only satisfy one particular need, but also lead to satisfaction in other areas: some examples are breastfeeding ; self-managed production; popular education ; democratic community organizations ; preventative medicine ; meditation; educational games.
The focus of CDP was on rural communities. But, professionally trained social workers concentrated their practice in urban areas.
Thus, although the focus of community organization was rural, the major thrust of Social Work gave an urban character which gave a balance in service for the program. International organizations apply the term community in Vietnam to the local administrative unit, each with a traditional identity based on traditional, cultural, and kinship relations.
Social and economic development planning SDEP in Vietnam uses top-down centralized planning methods and decision-making processes which do not consider local context and local participation. The plans created by SDEP are ineffective and serve mainly for administrative purposes.
The book is transparently and logically laid out From a personal perspective as community activist and local authority member, I found the book invaluable. Here were satisfying definitions of terms I have grappled with for years - "rural", "community", "sustainable", "social capital", "capacity building", "the leaky bucket". Here also were some outstanding examples of good practice This book is structured in terms of the key concepts of this field: sustainability, innovation, adding value, entrepreneurship, community, social inclusion, accessibility, partnership, community involvement, diagnosis, strategic planning, implementation and evaluation. Each is then placed into a practical context by two illustrative case studies related to development in rural Europe, the initiatives of which the author was either personally involved in or had personal knowledge. The author draws from this wealth of personal experience with the aim of providing activists, practitioners and specialists, as well as students, a concise and operational text which links the theory and practice of undertaking locally focused rural development.
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Practitioners of participatory development are often faced with the challenge of bridging the gap between ideals and what is possible in practice. This article presents ten principles for the practice of participatory development. The principles are offered as an intermediary between the philosophical roots of participatory development theory including feminism, environmentalism, and critical pedagogy and the current practice using tools such as participatory action research, participatory rural appraisal and appropriate technology. These principles remind practitioners of the philosophical elements we sometimes forget to act upon, and reinforce our commitment to those which we find most often challenged in the global economy. Most users should sign in with their email address.
Graduate Calendars Graduate Studies. It also fills the skill knowledge gaps for students who cannot take full courses.
In the context of a framework contract with the European Commission focused on supporting the implementation of European water policies, Ecologic Institute has contributed to the preparation of a best practice overview report on how water management issues can be addressed within Rural Development Programmes. The report is available for download. Drawing on best practice examples from an assessment of 52 Rural Development Programmes RDPs across Europe , the report provides guidance regarding how to optimally develop RDPs to reflect water management issues in the most integrated way. The report also presents requirements according to the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development and the associated implementing regulations. RDPs offer Member States and their regions an opportunity to tackle agriculture pressures on the water environment, to promote flood risk prevention and reduce drought risks. Current RDPs offer a number of measures that if designed well can have significant positive impacts on reducing agriculture pressures on the water environment.
Akbar, S. Journal of Economic and Social Intelligence, 3 3 , Chapman, R.
Malcolm Moseley makes an impressive job of cutting through the cackle and has produced a definitive catch-all volume to inform students, practitioners, community activists and local decision makers alike