File Name: structure and function of skin .zip
The human skin is the outer covering of the body and is the largest organ of the integumentary system. The skin has up to seven layers of ectodermal tissue and guards the underlying muscles , bones , ligaments and internal organs.
The skin is composed of two major layers: a superficial epidermis and a deeper dermis. The epidermis consists of several layers The topmost layer consists of dead cells that shed periodically and is progressively replaced by cells formed from the basal layer. The dermis connects the epidermis to the hypodermis, and provides strength and elasticity due to the presence of collagen and elastin fibers. The hypodermis, deep to the dermis of skin, is the connective tissue that connects the dermis to underlying structures; it also harbors adipose tissue for fat storage and protection. Although you may not typically think of the skin as an organ, it is in fact made of tissues that work together as a single structure to perform unique and critical functions.
Nurses need to understand the skin and its functions to identify and manage skin problems. This article comes with a self-assessment enabling you to test your knowledge after reading it. Nurses observe the skin of their patients daily and it is important they understand the skin so they can recognise problems when they arise. This article, the first in a two-part series on the skin, looks at its structure and function. Citation: Lawton S Skin 1: the structure and functions of the skin. Nursing Times [online]; , 12, Nurses will observe the skin daily while caring for patients and it is important they understand it so they can recognise problems when they arise.
Danby, Michael J. Cork, Georgios N. Skin physiology is dynamically changing over the first years of postnatal life; however, ethnic variations are still unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize infant skin barrier function, epidermal structure, and desquamation-related enzymatic activity as compared to that of adult skin in an East Asian population. The skin properties of 52 infants months and 27 adults years were assessed by noninvasive methods at the dorsal forearm and upper inner arm. Transepidermal water loss and skin surface conductance values were higher and more dispersed for infants compared to adults.
This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. The third edition of The Structure and Function of Skin by Montagna and Parakkal continues to fulfill the authors' intentions of providing updated and current information on the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of various aspects of skin function. The pages are divided into chapters relating to the epidermis including keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells, and Merkel cells , dermis, cutaneous blood vessels, nerves, pilary apparatus, nails, and sebaceous, apocrine and eccrine glands. Each chapter is liberally supplied with pertinent illustrative diagrams, transmission and scanning electron micrographs, as well as with classic photomicrographs. The scanning and transmission electron micrographs are of high quality and are presented in such a way as to meaningfully relate to the text and correlate with the diagrams and photomicrographs. The chapters are each adequately referenced with not only the most current research papers, but with older classic scholarly works.
The Structure and Function of Skin, Third Edition is devoted to all matters pertaining to the structure and function of the skin. Drawing upon the accumulated data derived from embryology, histology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology, this book presents an overview of skin, with emphasis on human skin. Topics range from the biological functions of the dermis to the histochemical and microchemical properties of the epidermis; the effects of protein deficiency on hair growth; cutaneous innervation; nail regeneration and growth; sebaceous glands; and eccrine sweat glands. This book is organized into 12 chapters and begins with an overview of the structure and function of skin, and then discusses the epidermis and its structural features. Special consideration is given to the life cycle of epidermal cells; the properties and function of stratum corneum; and other cells in the epidermis including melanocytes, the cells of Langerhans, and Merkel cells.
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. The skin is the site of many complex and dynamic processes as demonstrated in Figure and Table These processes include barrier and immunologic functions, melanin production, vitamin D synthesis, sensation, temperature regulation, protection from trauma and aesthetics. The epidermal barrier protects the skin from microbes, chemicals, physical trauma, and desiccation due to transepidermal water loss.
c: Sweat pores fed by sweat glands open to the cristae cutis (arrows). 1. Structure and Function of the Skin. The skin is the human body's its largest organ, covering.
Its most obvious job is to protect our insides from the outside, but there is much more to the skin than that. Alongside its role as a protective barrier, the skin helps us maintain the right internal temperature and allows us to sense the world through nerve endings. Skin is a complex organ; an average square inch of skin contains sweat glands , 20 blood vessels , and more than 1, nerve endings.
This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information.
Dermatology in Clinical Practice pp Cite as. Skin is the largest organ of the body, covering an area of 1. The skin protects us against the external environment.
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Это было его любимое изречение. ГЛАВА 32 Дэвид Беккер остановился в коридоре у номера 301. Он знал, что где-то за этой витиеватой резной дверью находится кольцо.
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Abstract · This article has been double-blind peer reviewed · Scroll down to read the article or download a print-friendly PDF here (if the PDF fails.Reply