File Name: organisational culture and leadership .zip
And when the strategy changes, culture must change too, because culture is what makes strategy happen. Why would you rely on old mindsets, outdated beliefs, and outmoded behaviors? We can help ensure your organizational culture helps, not hinders, alignment, and help you decide whether you have the right culture for your strategy. Do your leaders, managers, and teams lack alignment and operate in silos? Are your strategies and operational decisions complicated and ambiguous?
Metrics details. Organizational culture refers to the beliefs and values that have existed in an organization for a long time, and to the beliefs of the staff and the foreseen value of their work that will influence their attitudes and behavior.
Administrators usually adjust their leadership behavior to accomplish the mission of the organization, and this could influence the employees' job satisfaction. It is therefore essential to understand the relationship between organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction of employees. A cross-sectional study was undertaken that focused on hospital nurses in Taiwan.
Data was collected using a structured questionnaire; questionnaires were distributed and valid questionnaires were returned.
Correlation analysis was used on the relationships between organizational cultures, leadership behavior and job satisfaction. Organizational cultures were significantly positively correlated with leadership behavior and job satisfaction, and leadership behavior was significantly positively correlated with job satisfaction. The culture within an organization is very important, playing a large role in whether it is a happy and healthy environment in which to work.
In communicating and promoting the organizational ethos to employees, their acknowledgement and acceptance of it can influence their work behavior and attitudes. When the interaction between the leadership and employees is good, the latter will make a greater contribution to team communication and collaboration, and will also be encouraged to accomplish the mission and objectives assigned by the organization, thereby enhancing job satisfaction.
Peer Review reports. Because organizational culture reflects the values, beliefs and behavioral norms that are used by employees in an organization to give meaning to the situations that they encounter, it can influence the attitudes and behavior of the staff [ 2 ]. Understanding the organization's core values can prevent possible internal conflict [ 3 ], which is the main reason for our research into these cultural issues.
In other management fields, empirical research of organizational culture has involved the functionalist perspective, providing impressive evidence of the role of organizational culture in improving performance [ 4 ].
The pervasiveness of an organizational culture requires that management recognize its underpinning dimensions and its impact on employee-related variables, such as job satisfaction [ 5 ], organizational commitment [ 6 ], and performance [ 7 ]. Lund [ 5 ] believed that less research was done on the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction within the research topic of organizational culture and outcome. The organization consists of the staff, with the behavior of its individual members affecting outcomes.
Since cultural research within the nursing field is not common [ 8 ], it is necessary to explore the way the culture influences the behavior of the nursing staff, and in turn how the behavior of the staff influences the organizational outcome.
A two-dimensional model of leadership that focuses on the concern for people and production has been used for many years in organizational research [ 9 ]. In the late s, leadership research started focusing on behavior within organizational change and development [ 10 ]. Leadership implies authority in the broadest sense of the word and not simply the power to wield the stick [ 11 ]. It is based on objective factors, such as managerial ability, and more subjective characteristics that include personal qualities of the leaders.
The factors are of even greater importance given the current emerging culture of the nurse who has a clear and assertive vision about the nature of clinical practice [ 12 ]. Currently, there is a shortage of nurses in clinical care, and good leaders can help any attrition. Furthermore, the leadership skills of nurse administrators can contribute to the success of their organization [ 13 ]. Leadership is of increasing importance in clinical nursing [ 14 ]. Although leadership and organizational culture constructs have been well studied, the relationship between them has not been established in the field of nursing [ 6 ].
This study explores the relationship between organizational culture and leadership behavior. Nielsen et al. Although the data indicated that the development of an organizational culture is related to the behavior of its leaders, the results failed conclude whether this affected their attitudes or behavior as employees.
From the nursing administration perspective, the normal course of action taken to influence employee behavior and achieve the objectives set by the administrators comes through administrative management.
Therefore, as well as discussing the relationship between leadership behavior and organizational culture, this research will investigate the effect of leader behavior and organizational culture towards employee job satisfaction. The findings clearly show that hospital administrators should be concerned about the effects of leadership behavior and organizational culture on the attitude towards work of their employees.
This should help administrators alter their behavior in order to maintain a good mutual relationship with their subordinates, improving their working attitude and, more importantly, reducing potential conflicts. Culture is socially learned and transmitted by members; it provides the rules for behavior within organizations [ 18 ]. The definition of organizational culture is of the belief that can guide staff in knowing what to do and what not to do, including practices, values, and assumptions about their work [ 19 ].
The core values of an organization begin with its leadership, which will then evolve to a leadership style. Subordinates will be led by these values and the behavior of leaders, such that the behavior of both parties should become increasingly in line. When strong unified behavior, values and beliefs have been developed, a strong organizational culture emerges.
Leaders have to appreciate their function in maintaining an organization's culture. This would in return ensure consistent behavior between members of the organization, reducing conflicts and creating a healthy working environment for employees [ 20 ].
Job satisfaction has been associated with nurses who perceive their managers as supportive and caring. A supportive manager shares values, believes in a balance of power, and provides opportunities for open dialogue with nurses [ 21 ], which in turn reduces the chances of internal conflicts. This type of leader is successful in his or her role and is supportive and responsive to clinical nurses, thereby preserving power and status within the hospital system.
Such leaders are valued throughout the organization and have executive power to do what they see as necessary to create a positive environment for nursing [ 22 ]. Accordingly, they have a measurable effect on the morale and job satisfaction of nurses [ 23 ]. Organizational culture expresses shared assumptions, values and beliefs, and is the social glue holding an organization together [ 24 ]. A strong culture is a system of rules that spells out how people should behave [ 25 ].
An organization with a strong culture has common values and codes of conduct for its employees, which should help them accomplish their missions and goals.
Work recognition and job satisfaction can be achieved when employees can complete the tasks assigned to them by the organization. A structured questionnaire was compiled based on similar studies published in international journals [ 26 , 27 ].
Twenty-three factors regarding organizational culture were taken from Tsui et al. Our research was focused on clinical nurses in hospitals; therefore, refinements were made to the questionnaire designed by Tsui et al.
The study invited three directors or supervisors from the medical center to validate the questionnaire. Lastly, there were 22 questions in the organizational culture section. However, the proposed test was not empirically studied. Nurses from hospital A were used as a pilot study sample. Vroom [ 28 ] classified job satisfaction into 7 dimensions: organizational, promotion, job content, superior, reward, working environment and working partners.
We took into consideration that nurses' salary increases are based on promotion. Furthermore, a large number of variables in organization culture and leadership behavior were covered by this research.
To prevent too few number nurses from responding to the questionnaires, we asked only 4 job satisfaction dimensions out of a total of 12 items: job recognition, reward and welfare, superior and working partners.
We employed self-administered questionnaires to collect research data. Data was collected between October 1 and November 30, We selected 2 hospitals as our sample target and appointed a designated person at each to issue questionnaires to employees.
The number of questionnaires issued depended on the designated person. The questionnaires were completed voluntarily by all respondents. During the research period, there were nurses in hospital A; questionnaires were distributed, and 57 valid questionnaires were returned.
In hospital B there were a total of nurses; questionnaires were distributed, and valid questionnaires were returned total return rate Of the subjects, The majority of employees at the hospitals were general nurses All data were analyzed using the SPSS To explore the factor construct of scale, a series of exploratory factor analysis EFA were employed. Correlation analysis was used to test for the relationships among subscales of organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction scale.
Finally, a series of regression analysis were used to identify the proposed hypotheses. For H1 and H3, two sets of simple linear regression were used to assess the association between independent variable and dependent variable. For H2, hierarchical regression analysis was used to assess the independent association between leadership behavior and job satisfaction after controlling for the effect of organizational culture.
The questionnaires used exploratory factor analysis. We extracted 4 factors from the organizational culture via principal component analysis, used the Varimax of the rotation method, and named them: employee orientation, customer focus, emphasizing responsibility, and emphasizing cooperation.
We extracted 4 factors from leadership behavior and named them: leader's encouragement and supportiveness to subordinates, leader giving subordinates a clear vision and trust, leader's behavior is consistent with organization's vision, and leader is persuasive in convincing subordinates to acknowledge the vision.
We extracted factors for job satisfaction and called them: working partners, rewards and welfare, superior and job recognition. The average score for organizational culture was between 3. The average score for leadership behavior was between 3. The second highest score was 3. The average score for job satisfaction was between 3. The results also showed that organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction were positively associated with hypotheses one to three, which were supported see Table 3.
Table 4 presents the results of several regression analyses. The association among there three main variables was illustrated as Figure 1. The association between organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction. The values shown were standardized regression coefficient and value in parenthesis was partially standardized regression coefficient. However, by adopting regression analysis, we also found that leadership behavior impacts on organizational culture.
Laschinger et al. Mayo [ 30 ] argued that the key determinant of job satisfaction was group interaction, and highlighted the importance of good leadership and satisfying personal relations in the workplace. Management and leadership behavior at the hospital affected nurses' job satisfaction [ 31 ]. The research also discovered that leadership behavior will also influence employee job satisfaction. As well as the above-described individual factors, the research also showed that factors at the organization level, such as the organizational culture, also have an effect on job satisfaction.
This result is consistent with the results of Gifford et al. It is recommended that it is also important for hospital administrators to establish a good organizational infrastructure in addition to improving the working environment in order to increase employee job satisfaction.
Decisions about patient care are often made by a team, rather than by a single individual [ 33 ].
Edgar Schein proposed a model of an organizational culture where the basic assumptions shape values and the values shape practices and behavior, which is the visible part of the culture. Organizations do not adopt a culture in a single day and in fact learn from past experiences and start practicing it every day thus forming the culture of the workplace. Artifacts 2. Values 3. Artifacts These mark the surface of the culture in every organization. Language gives away culture through modes of speaking, levels, and types of sound, slogans, and special expressions. Stories and myths circulating among the staff indicate what type of persons or acts are considered heroic, how certain types of situations should be handled, what should not be done, what happens in this organization if one acts in a particular way, and so on.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. We begin our discussion of organizational culture with a case study from the aerospace industry Snyder, :. Plant 10 of Lockheed-California's L program was considered an albatross by Lockheed's top management. In , when Dan Daniels was named vice president of manufacturing and given direct responsibility for the plant, he faced a myriad of performance problems in Plant 10, including production behind schedule, production costs significantly over budget, quality problems, a climate of fear that suppressed information needed to correct problems, and open hostility between departments. Fortunately, from his experiences over the years, Daniels had developed a strong managerial philosophy that was very different from the autocratic and demeaning style of management for which Plant 10 had been known.
Executives are often confounded by culture, because much of it is anchored in unspoken behaviors, mindsets, and social patterns. Many leaders either let it go unmanaged or relegate it to HR, where it becomes a secondary concern for the business. This is a mistake, because properly managed, culture can help them achieve change and build organizations that will thrive in even the most trying times. The authors have reviewed the literature on culture and distilled eight distinct culture styles: caring, focused on relationships and mutual trust; purpose, exemplified by idealism and altruism; learning, characterized by exploration, expansiveness, and creativity; enjoyment, expressed through fun and excitement; results, characterized by achievement and winning; authority, defined by strength, decisiveness, and boldness; safety, defined by planning, caution, and preparedness; and order, focused on respect, structure, and shared norms. They can be used to diagnose and describe highly complex and diverse behavioral patterns in a culture and to model how likely an individual leader is to align with and shape that culture.
Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. Edgar Schein explores how leadership and culture are fundamentally intertwined, and reveals key findings about leadership and culture including:.
Organizational culture is defined as the underlying beliefs, assumptions, values and ways of interacting that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization. Culture is based on shared attitudes, beliefs, customs, and written and unwritten rules that have been developed over time and are considered valid The Business Dictionary. While the above definitions of culture express how the construct plays out in the workplace, other definitions stress employee behavioral components, and how organizational culture directly influences the behaviors of employees within an organization. Organizational culture affects the way people and groups interact with each other, with clients, and with stakeholders. Also, organizational culture may influence how much employees identify with their organization Schrodt, Business leaders are vital to the creation and communication of their workplace culture. However, the relationship between leadership and culture is not one-sided.
Members may download one copy of our sample forms and templates for your personal use within your organization. Neither members nor non-members may reproduce such samples in any other way e. The key to a successful organization is to have a culture based on a strongly held and widely shared set of beliefs that are supported by strategy and structure. When an organization has a strong culture, three things happen: Employees know how top management wants them to respond to any situation, employees believe that the expected response is the proper one, and employees know that they will be rewarded for demonstrating the organization's values.
The Concept of Organizational Culture: Why Bother? 3. 2. The Levels of that leadership and culture are two sides of the same coin. Leadership has been.Reply
Organizational Culture & Leadership. By: Edgar H Schein; notes compiled by Ted Nellen stpetersnt.org 1. By. Edgar H Schein.Reply