File Name: folic acid and neural tube defects .zip
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Taking folic acid supplements before pregnancy to reduce the risk of a neural tube defect NTD is especially important in countries without universal folic acid fortification. The proportion of women who took folic acid supplements before pregnancy was determined according to year and characteristics of the women. The policy of folic acid supplementation is failing and has led to health inequalities. This study demonstrates the need to fortify flour and other cereal grain with folic acid in all countries of the world. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Neural tube defects NTDs are a group of birth defects in which an opening in the spine or cranium remains from early in human development. In the third week of pregnancy called gastrulation , specialized cells on the dorsal side of the embryo begin to change shape and form the neural tube. When the neural tube does not close completely, an NTD develops. Specific types include: spina bifida which affects the spine , anencephaly which results in little to no brain , encephalocele which affects the skull , and iniencephaly which results in severe neck problems. NTDs are one of the most common birth defects , affecting over , births each year worldwide. There are two types of NTDs: open, which are more common, and closed. Examples of open NTDs are anencephaly , encephaloceles , hydranencephaly , iniencephaly , schizencephaly , and spina bifida.
Periconception folic acid is a primary prevention that is now well known, but implementation lags behind the basic science. Neural tube defects occur early in pregnancy, within the first 4 weeks, so most women will not even know they are pregnant at this point. Cells of the neural plate fold back on themselves to make the neural tube, which will eventually become the brain, vertebral column and spinal cord. When the cephalic end of the neural tube fails to close, anencephaly occurs; when the neural tube remains open at the caudal extremity, spina bifida is the consequence. Both anencephaly and spina bifida have a range of clinical presentations but are both serious medical problems. Neural tube defects are thought to occur through a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
Metrics details. We examined whether this preventive effect differs by the sex of the infant. Data were gathered from a large population-based cohort study in China that evaluated the effects of FA supplementation on NTDs. All births at 20 complete gestational weeks, including live births, stillbirths, and pregnancy terminations, and all NTDs, regardless of gestational age, were recorded. In a northern China province, a total of 30, singleton live births to women whose use of FA supplements during the first trimester was known at the time were included in the study.
Abstract: Folic acid supplementation is recommended for neural tube defect prevention during pregnancy. We conducted an observational.
A protective effect of folate against the development of neural tube defects NTDs , specifically, anencephaly and spina bifida, is now well recognized, having been established by a chain of clinical research studies over the past half century. This article summarizes the more important of these studies, which have led to the current situation in which all women capable of becoming pregnant are urged to ingest folic acid regularly. However, a reduction in NTD births did not follow promulgation of these recommendations, and so folic acid fortification was mandated in the United States and some other countries. The folate-NTD relation represents the only instance in which a congenital malformation can be prevented simply and consistently.
Folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects. Neural tube defects NTDs are among the most common birth defects, which include anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele. These serious birth defects of the brain and spine are preventable and are significant causes of infant death and childhood disability.
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Folic acid has been demonstrated in clinical trials to reduce significantly the recurrence and probably occurrence of neural tube defects NTD.Reply