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Those intentions are considered to be the determining factor in the kind of rebirth in samsara , the cycle of rebirth. Karmaphala Tib. A similar term is karmavipaka , the "maturation"  or "cooking"  of karma :. The metaphor is derived from agriculture:  . One sows a seed, there is a time lag during which some mysterious invisible process takes place, and then the plant pops up and can be harvested.
Karma and karmaphala are fundamental concepts in Buddhism. Rebirth , [note 2] , is a common belief in all Buddhist traditions. It is a beginningless and ever-ongoing process. Hereby the ongoing process of rebirth is stopped.
The cycle of rebirth is determined by karma ,  literally "action". Intention cetana I tell you, is kamma. It is the psychological impulse behind an action that is 'karma', that which sets going a chain of causes culminating in karmic fruit.
Actions, then, must be intentional if they are to generate karmic fruits. The Buddha defined karma as intention; whether the intention manifested itself in physical, vocal or mental form, it was the intention alone which had a moral character: good, bad or neutral [ According to Gombrich, this was a great innovation, which overturns brahmanical, caste-bound ethics. It is a rejection of caste-bound differences, giving the same possibility to reach liberation to all people, not just Brahmanins: .
Not by birth is one a brahmin or an outcaste, but by deeds kamma. How this emphasis on intention was to be interpreted became a matter of debate in and between the various Buddhist schools. Karma leads to future consequences, karma-phala , "fruit of action". Good moral actions lead to wholesome rebirths, and bad moral actions lead to unwholesome rebirths. How these intentional actions lead to rebirth, and how the idea of rebirth is to be reconciled with the doctrines of impermanence and no-self ,  [quote 5] is a matter of philosophical inquiry in the Buddhist traditions, for which several solutions have been proposed.
These impressions, or "seeds", will ripen into a future result or fruition. The Buddha's teaching of karma is not strictly deterministic, but incorporated circumstantial factors, unlike that of the Jains.
Karma is also not the same as "fate" or "predestination". The real importance of the doctrine of karma and its fruits lies in the recognition of the urgency to put a stop to the whole process. According to Gombrich, this sutra may have been a warning against the tendency, "probably from the Buddha's day until now", to understand the doctrine of karma "backwards", to explain unfavorable conditions in this life when no other explanations are available.
According to the Buddhist tradition, the Buddha gained full and complete insight into the workings of karma at the time of his enlightenment. In AN 5. In the Anguttara Nikaya , it is stated that karmic results are experienced either in this life P.
The Sammyutta Nikaya makes a basic distinction between past karma P. Karma in the early canon is also threefold: Mental action S. Various Buddhist philosophical schools developed within Buddhism, giving various interpretations regarding more refined points of karma.
A major problem is the relation between the doctrine of no-self, and the "storage" of the traces of one's deeds,  for which various solutions have been offered. The concept of karma originated in the Vedic religion , where it was related to the performance of rituals  or the investment in good deeds  to ensure the entrance to heaven after death,   while other persons go to the underworld.
The concept of karma may have been of minor importance in early Buddhism. The doctrine of karma may have been especially important for common people, for whom it was more important to cope with life's immediate demands, such as the problems of pain, injustice, and death.
The doctrine of karma met these exigencies, and in time it became an important soteriological aim in its own right. Sarvastivadins argued that there exists a dharma of "possession" prapti , which functions with all karmic acts, so that each act or thought, though immediately passing away, creates the "possession" of that act in the continuum of instants we experience as a person.
This possession itself is momentary, but continually reproduces a similar possession in the succeeding instant, even though the original act lies in the past. Through such continual regeneration, the act is "possessed" until the actualization of the result. Good and bad deeds performed are thus said to leave "seeds" or traces of disposition that will come to fruition. The Petavatthu , which is fully canonical, endorses the transfer of merit even more widely, including the possibility of sharing merit with all petas.
The rebirths of bodhisattvas after the seventh stage S. If the act lasted till the time of ripening, the act would be eternal. If the act were terminated, how could the terminated produce a fruit? In Tibetan Buddhism, the teachings on karma belong to the preliminary teachings, that turn the mind towards the Buddhist dharma. In the Vajrayana tradition, negative past karma may be "purified" through such practices as meditation on Vajrasattva because they both are the mind's psychological phenomenon.
Otherwise, loving others, receives love; whereas; people with closed hearts may be prevented from happiness. The story of the koan is about an ancient Zen teacher whose answer to a question presents a wrong view about karma by saying that the person who has a foundation in cultivating the great practice "does not fall into cause and effect.
He is then able to appear as a human and ask the same question to Zen teacher Baizhang, who answers, "He is not in the dark about cause and effect. The Zen perspective avoids the duality of asserting that an enlightened person is either subject to or free from the law of karma and that the key is not being ignorant about karma.
Nichiren Buddhism teaches that transformation and change through faith and practice changes adverse karma—negative causes made in the past that result in negative results in the present and future—to positive causes for benefits in the future. Buddhist modernists often prefer to equate karma with social conditioning, in contradistinction with, as one scholar puts it, "early texts [which] give us little reason to interpret 'conditioning' as the infusion into the psyche of external social norms, or of awakening as simply transcending all psychological conditioning and social roles.
Karmic conditioning drifts semantically toward 'cultural conditioning' under the influence of western discourses that elevate the individual over the social, cultural, and institutional. The traditional import of the karmic conditioning process, however, is primarily ethical and soteriological—actions condition circumstances in this and future lives.
Some western commentators and Buddhists have taken exception to aspects of karma theory, and have proposed revisions of various kinds.
These proposals fall under the rubric of Buddhist modernism. The "primary critique" of the Buddhist doctrine of karma is that some feel "karma may be socially and politically disempowering in its cultural effect, that without intending to do this, karma may in fact support social passivity or acquiescence in the face of oppression of various kinds.
Wright, a scholar specializing in Zen Buddhism, has proposed that the doctrine be reformulated for modern people, "separated from elements of supernatural thinking," so that karma is asserted to condition only personal qualities and dispositions rather than rebirth and external occurrences. Loy argues that the idea of accumulating merit too easily becomes "spiritual materialism," a view echoed by other Buddhist modernists, [note 19] and further that karma has been used to rationalize racism, caste, economic oppression, birth handicaps and everything else.
Loy goes on to argue that the view that suffering such as that undergone by Holocaust victims could be attributed in part to the karmic ripenings of those victims is "fundamentalism, which blames the victims and rationalizes their horrific fate," and that this is "something no longer to be tolerated quietly. It is time for modern Buddhists and modern Buddhism to outgrow it" by revising or discarding the teachings on karma. Other scholars have argued, however, that the teachings on karma do not encourage judgment and blame, given that the victims were not the same people who committed the acts, but rather were just part of the same mindstream -continuum with the past actors,  and that the teachings on karma instead provide "a thoroughly satisfying explanation for suffering and loss" in which believers take comfort.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the use of this term in other Indian religions, see Karma. Action driven by intention which leads to future consequences. Dharma Concepts. Buddhist texts. Buddhism by country. See also: Right view and Parable of the Poisoned Arrow. See also: Anatta and moral responsibility. See also: Development of Karma in Buddhism. Main article: Pre-sectarian Buddhism. Main article: Transfer of merit.
Main article: Karma in Tibetan Buddhism. This section uncritically uses texts from within a religion or faith system without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them. Please help improve this article by adding references to reliable secondary sources , with multiple points of view. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. For example, Peter Harvey translates the quote as follows: "It is will cetana , O monks, that I call karma; having willed, one acts through body, speech, and mind.
Shorter versions are also known. According to Schumann, the twelvefold chain may be a combination of three succeeding lives, each one of them shown by some of the samkaras. Only the eighth cause can be ascribed to karma. In fact, originally karman seems to have been only one of several concepts connected with rebirth, but in the course of time it proved to be more popular than others. The wish — variously referred to in the texts as kAma or kratu — is directed to a particular form or place of rebirth and can be spontaneous at the time of death or cultivated for a long time.
This understanding seems to have some affinity with the Buddhist notion that a mental effort, a positive state of mind, can bring about a good rebirth. This nirvana is an "abode" or "place" which is gained by the enlightened holy man. The three bodies are concentric realities, which are stripped away or abandoned, leaving only the nirodhakaya of the liberated person.
King Journal of Buddhist Ethics Volume 1 Good deeds result in an upward movement and bad deeds in a downward one. Karma is not a system of rewards and punishments meted out by God but a kind of natural law akin to the law of gravity.
Individuals are thus the sole authors of their good and bad fortune. These cycles are driven by impulses of energy, known in the Kalachakra system as "winds of karma. Short of attaining enlightenment, in each rebirth one is born and dies, to be reborn elsewhere in accordance with the completely impersonal causal nature of one's own karman.
The endless cycle of birth, rebirth, and redeath, is samsara. When we feel kindness and love and with this attitude do good things, which are beneficial to both ourselves and others, this is positive action.
When we commit harmful deeds out of equally harmful intentions, this is negative action. Finally, when our motivation is indifferent and our deeds are neither harmful or beneficial, this is neutral action. The results we experience will accord with the quality of our actions. The problem is aggravated when the trace remains latent over a long period, perhaps over a period of many existences.
Compare the personalities of Sir Mohan Lal and Lachmi. Answer:-Sir Mohan Lal was an anglicized Indian who took pride in everything British and hated anything that was Indian. His treatment of Indians was so cruel that he was ashamed to travel even with his wife and did not like his in-laws. On the other hand Lachmi was an extremely ordinary and simple lady who did not even reciprocate the hatred of her husband. She thought of herself as a submissive, docile wife of an aggressive, flamboyant person.
You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Compare the personalities of Sir Mohan Lal and Lachmi.
What did Lachmi come to know about the condition of the trains in the route? Ans: Sir Mohan, to Lachmi, is more of a master than a husband. Sir Mohan stays inside the first class waiting room while Lachmi remains outside. In the train, Sir Mohan travels by first-class while Lachmi accommodates herself in the Zenana compartment. So, Sir Mohan prefers commanding while Lachmi obeys him faithfully. Lachmi came to know that the trains in the route were mostly packed with passengers.
Short story karma important question and answer for class 11 West Bengal board. Also find previous year exam questions from karma.
Banner ads. Khuswant Singh. Justify the title of the Story Karma. In this story Sir Mohan is a blind admirer of British culture and manners. He is even ashamed of his Indian wife who can neither speak English nor can follow British manners.
Those intentions are considered to be the determining factor in the kind of rebirth in samsara , the cycle of rebirth. Karmaphala Tib. A similar term is karmavipaka , the "maturation"  or "cooking"  of karma :.
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Karma broad / long / descriptive important questions and answers for Class Ans: Karma is a story about Sir Mohan Lal (Native Indian) who looks down on his.Reply
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