File Name: noise pollution and its effects on human health .zip
Noise pollution occurs when unwanted sounds enter the environment.
Noise pollution has become a major environmental problem leading to nuisances and health issues. This paper aims to study and analyse the noise pollution levels in major areas in Ota metropolis. A probability model which is capable of predicting the noise pollution level is also determined.
Datasets on the noise pollution level in 41 locations across Ota metropolis were used in this research. The datasets were collected thrice per day; morning, afternoon and evening.
Descriptive statistics were performed, and analysis of variance was also conducted using Minitab version Easy fit software was however used to select the appropriate probability model that would best describe the dataset. The noise levels are way far from the WHO recommendations. Also, there is no significant difference in the effects of the noise pollution level for all the times of the day considered.
The log-logistic distribution provides the best fit to the dataset based on the Kolmogorov Smirnov goodness of fit test. The fitted probability model can help in the prediction of noise pollution and act as a yardstick in the reduction of noise pollution, thereby improving the public health of the populace.
Noise pollution is one of several environmental pollutions across the world. It can be described as the propagation of noise with a harmful impact on the physiological and psychological lives of humans or animals [ 1 ]. Noise or sound pollution is usually not studied compared with other forms of pollution such as air [ 2 ], [ 3 ], [ 4 ], water [ 5 ], soil [ 6 ], light and radioactive.
The reason is that the adverse effects of other forms of pollution on humans are more pronounced. Notwithstanding, noise pollution remains a serious health concern in the study area Ota, Nigeria in particular and the entire planet [ 7 ], [ 8 ].
Some of the identified sources of noise pollution are loud music from concerts, religious buildings like churches and mosques, noise emitting generators [ 9 ], political rallies, road advertisement, traffic [ 10 ] and air transportation [ 11 ], sporting events, construction and industrial activities.
In all the mentioned sources, areas that have high risk of noise pollution are residential places near to major roads [ 12 ] and airports and manufacturing industries [ 13 ]; for example, small scale industries [ 14 ], [ 15 ], steel rolling industries [ 16 ], oil and gas industry [ 17 ], [ 18 ] and so on.
The health effects of noise pollution cannot be over-emphasised. Noise pollution occurs when it is observed that those standards are exceeded as seen in [ 19 ], [ 20 ]. The most common manifestation of noise pollution is hearing loss or impairment [ 21 ]. Hearing impairment is mostly classified as occupational hazards especially when the individual is affiliated with industry that propagates loud sound or noise.
Moreover, several physiological and psychological effects of noise pollution exist. The combination of noise and air pollution is associated with respiratory ailments, dizziness and tiredness in school children [ 22 ], [ 23 ]. In adults, noise pollution has been found to be associated with high blood pressure [ 24 ] and cognitive difficulties [ 25 ]. A look at the literature showed the abundance of evidence of the adverse effects of noise pollution on the general public health.
The worsening situation of noise pollution is that it has not been upgraded to the level of the other forms of pollution. Also, recommendations suggested by several authors on the different strategies on tackling noise pollution has not been considered and implemented. However, noise pollution continues to impact negatively on fetal development [ 26 ], annoyance and anxiety [ 27 ], mental health crisis [ 28 ], sleep disturbance and insomnia [ 29 ], [ 30 ], cardiovascular disorders in pregnant women [ 31 ], cardiocerebrovascular diseases [ 32 ], type 2 diabetes incidence [ 33 ] and medically unexplained physical symptoms [ 34 ].
Other auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health are myocardial infarction incidence [ 35 ], peptic ulcers [ 36 ] and disruption of communication and retentive capabilities in children [ 37 ].
The dataset used in this research was gotten from [ 38 ]. It represents the noise level in 41 major locations in Ota metropolis, Nigeria. These major areas include industrial areas, commercial areas, passenger loading parks, busy roads and junctions. Measurements were taken three different times of the day; morning 7 am to 9 am , afternoon 1 pm to 3 pm and evening 6 pm to 8 pm. Particularly, the noise pollution level NLP was considered and analysed in this present research. Analysis of variance is conducted in this research to know if there is a significant difference between the effect of noise pollution level in the morning, afternoon and evening in Ota metropolis.
The hypothesis tested is:. H 0 : The effects of the noise pollution level are the same for morning, afternoon and evening. H 1 : The effects of the noise pollution level are not the same for at least one of either morning, afternoon or evening. The level of significance used is 0. The goodness of fit test is performed in this research to select the probability model that best fits the dataset.
The KS test was adopted in this research because it is the most popular and others might give similar results. The null hypothesis tests whether the data follow a specified distribution. If represent ordered data points, the KS statistic is:. The analyses of the means of the various measurements are presented in Table 2. The result of the analysis of variance is presented in Table 3. The result in Table 3 shows that the generated p-value is 0. Hence, there is no enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis, and it can, therefore, be concluded that there is no significant difference in the means of the noise level measurements taken in the morning, afternoon and evening.
It can be observed in Figure 6 that all the intervals contained zero; this is an indication that there is no significant difference in the pair of each of the measurements considered.
To determine the appropriate probability model that describes the mean noise pollution level in Ota metropolis, Easyfit trial version software was used to select distribution with the best fit. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov KS test of goodness of fit was used to select the best model.
The software fitted sixty distributions to the dataset, but the best five was reported in this research. The result is presented in Table 4. A graph showing the best distribution fitted to the dataset on mean noise pollution level is presented in Figure 7.
In conclusion, further analyses of the noise pollution level in Ota metropolis has been provided in this research.
The mean noise level in the morning was This is reasonable as more activities are expected during this time; pupils are going to school, workers going to the office, traffic at some junction and major bus stops.
However, the analysis of variance result indicated that the time of the day morning, afternoon and evening have the same effect on the environment and populace. Also, the noise pollution level in Ota metropolis can be modelled using the log-logistic distribution as evident from the goodness of fit test.
The model can now be used in predicting and managing noise pollution in that area. Furthermore, the model can be used in different geographical settings where noise pollution poses a perceived threat to the public health of the populace.
Funding: This research received financial support from the Covenant University. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Apr Pelumi E. Okagbue , 1 Omoleye A. Oguntunde , 2 and Oluwole O. Odetunmibi 1. Hilary I. Omoleye A. Oluwole O. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
E-mail: gn. Oguntunde, Hilary I. Okagbue, Omoleye A. Oguntunde, Oluwole O. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. AIM: This paper aims to study and analyse the noise pollution levels in major areas in Ota metropolis. Introduction Noise pollution is one of several environmental pollutions across the world. Material and Methods The dataset used in this research was gotten from [ 38 ].
Analysis of Variance Analysis of variance is conducted in this research to know if there is a significant difference between the effect of noise pollution level in the morning, afternoon and evening in Ota metropolis. The hypothesis tested is: H 0 : The effects of the noise pollution level are the same for morning, afternoon and evening Versus H 1 : The effects of the noise pollution level are not the same for at least one of either morning, afternoon or evening.
Open in a separate window. The goodness of Fit Test The goodness of fit test is performed in this research to select the probability model that best fits the dataset. If represent ordered data points, the KS statistic is: where are the ordered data and is the cumulative distribution function cdf of the continuous distribution tested.
Figure 1. Figure 3. Figure 4. Summary report for the mean measurements of LNP across all locations in Ota. Figure 2. Result for the Analysis of Variance The analyses of the means of the various measurements are presented in Table 2. Table 2 Analysis of the Means. Figure 5. Figure 6. Fitting of Probability Models To determine the appropriate probability model that describes the mean noise pollution level in Ota metropolis, Easyfit trial version software was used to select distribution with the best fit.
Table 4 Fitted Distributions. Figure 7.
Image adapted from: cocoparisienne; CC0. Well, maybe. Exposure to prolonged or excessive noise has been shown to cause a range of health problems ranging from stress, poor concentration, productivity losses in the workplace, and communication difficulties and fatigue from lack of sleep, to more serious issues such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, tinnitus and hearing loss. This study collated data from various large-scale epidemiological studies of environmental noise in Western Europe, collected over a year period. The studies analysed environmental noise from planes, trains and vehicles, as well as other city sources, and then looked at links to health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, sleep disturbance, tinnitus, cognitive impairment in children, and annoyance. Their results might surprise you. They found that at least one million healthy years of life are lost each year in Europe alone due to noise pollution and this figure does not include noise from industrial workplaces.
Atmospheric pollution is not the only type of contamination that is harming living beings on the planet. And according to the European Environment Agency EEA , noise is responsible for 16, premature deaths and more than 72, hospitalisations every year in Europe alone. According to the WHO, noise is harmful when it exceeds 75 decibels dB and feels painful at levels above dB. Drivers honking the horn, groups of workers drilling the road surface, aircraft flying over us in the sky Noise, noise and more noise. Cities have become the epicentre of a type of pollution, acoustics, which, although its invisibility and the fact that coronavirus crisis reduced it until almost yearn it, is severely damaging to human beings. So much so that the European Environment Agency estimates that noise is responsible for 72, hospital admissions and 16, premature deaths every year in Europe alone.
Noise pollution , unwanted or excessive sound that can have deleterious effects on human health, wildlife, and environmental quality. Noise pollution is commonly generated inside many industrial facilities and some other workplaces, but it also comes from highway, railway, and airplane traffic and from outdoor construction activities. Sound waves are vibrations of air molecules carried from a noise source to the ear. Sound is typically described in terms of the loudness amplitude and the pitch frequency of the wave. Loudness also called sound pressure level, or SPL is measured in logarithmic units called decibels dB. The normal human ear can detect sounds that range between 0 dB hearing threshold and about dB, with sounds between dB and dB causing pain pain threshold. The ambient SPL in a library is about 35 dB, while that inside a moving bus or subway train is roughly 85 dB; building construction activities can generate SPLs as high as dB at the source.
Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Help expand a public dataset of research that support the SDGs. Environmental Pollution is an international peer-reviewed journal that publishes high quality research papers and review articles about all aspects of environmental pollution and its effects on ecosystems and human health.
One of our era's greatest scourges is air pollution, on account not only of its impact on climate change but also its impact on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality. There are many pollutants that are major factors in disease in humans. Among them, Particulate Matter PM , particles of variable but very small diameter, penetrate the respiratory system via inhalation, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, reproductive and central nervous system dysfunctions, and cancer. Despite the fact that ozone in the stratosphere plays a protective role against ultraviolet irradiation, it is harmful when in high concentration at ground level, also affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular system. Furthermore, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs , dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs are all considered air pollutants that are harmful to humans. Carbon monoxide can even provoke direct poisoning when breathed in at high levels. Heavy metals such as lead, when absorbed into the human body, can lead to direct poisoning or chronic intoxication, depending on exposure.
Noise pollution has become a major environmental problem leading to nuisances and health issues. This paper aims to study and analyse the noise pollution levels in major areas in Ota metropolis. A probability model which is capable of predicting the noise pollution level is also determined. Datasets on the noise pollution level in 41 locations across Ota metropolis were used in this research. The datasets were collected thrice per day; morning, afternoon and evening.
Noise pollution , also known as environmental noise or sound pollution , is the propagation of noise with ranging impacts on the activity of human or animal life, most of them harmful to a degree. The source of outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines, transport, and propagation systems. Some of the main sources of noise in residential areas include loud music , transportation traffic, rail, airplanes, etc. Documented problems associated with noise in urban environments go back as far as ancient Rome. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease. Up until recently, most research on noise impacts has been focused on marine mammals, and to a lesser degree, fish.
Noise health effects are the physical and psychological health consequences of regular exposure to consistent elevated sound levels. Noise from traffic, in particular, is considered by the World Health Organization to be one of the worst environmental stressors for humans, second only to air pollution. Although age-related health effects presbycusis occur naturally with age,  in many countries the cumulative impact of noise is sufficient to impair the hearing of a large fraction of the population over the course of a lifetime. Adverse cardiovascular effects occur from chronic exposure to noise due to the sympathetic nervous system's inability to habituate. The sympathetic nervous system maintains lighter stages of sleep when the body is exposed to noise, which does not allow blood pressure to follow the normal rise and fall cycle of an undisturbed circadian rhythm. Stress from time spent around elevated noise levels has been linked with increased workplace accident rates and aggression and other anti-social behaviors.
Faisalabad is one of the major industrial cities of Pakistan, which may cause noise pollution to the local residents due to the development of robust industrial and transport systems. This study aimed at i mapping the noise pollution levels at various locations of Faisalabad city; ii comparing noise pollution levels in the morning, the afternoon, and the evening for each source; and iii assessing nonauditory effects of noise on human health. A questionnaire-based survey was carried out near the sampling points to get a public perception about the health impacts of noise pollution. The measured equivalent sound pressure levels SPLeq were higher than the permissible limits at all the sampling locations during morning, afternoon, and evening hours. Noise pollution is higher than the standard limits and causes auditory as well as nonauditory effects on humans.
Теперь он был на виду, его голова торчала из оконного проема как на гильотине.
Noise pollution is a major problem in cities around the world. Noise represents an important public health problem that can lead to hearing loss, sleep disruption, cardiovascular disease, social handicaps, reduced productivity, negative social behaviour, annoyance reactions, absenteeism and accidents.Reply
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PDF | Noise pollution is one of the man-made environmental hazards that is given the least attention. By World Health Organization's (WHO).Reply
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