File Name: essentials of human diseases and conditions ch 6 .zip
Adolescence is a period of significant transformation from childhood to adulthood. The change during this period is equaled only by the growth and development that happens in infants. Adolescence is marked by tremendous physical, cognitive, emotional, and social challenges and growth.
This hormone can cause the prostate gland to grow abnormally. Also known as a tummy tuck. Often occurs on the surface of the skin.
ACE: Abbreviation for angiotensin-converting enzyme, an enzyme that converts the inactive form of the protein angiotensin angiotensin I to its active form—angiotensin II. ACE inhibitor: Abbreviation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, a drug used to treat high blood pressure and congestive heart failure.
The ball-shaped portion at the top of the thighbone fits into this space to form the hip joint. Achilles' tendon: A band of connective tissue that connects the calf muscle to the heel bone.
This can affect digestion, cause stomach pain, and keep the body from absorbing vitamins and nutrients. This is the most advanced stage of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus HIV , which can severely weaken the immune system.
People with AIDS get many infections, often from diseases that don't affect people with healthy immune systems. Actinic keratosis may be a precursor to skin cancer. Thin needles are inserted into the skin at specific points on the body. This therapy is used to treat pain and various health problems and to reduce stress. Causes include an enlarged prostate gland in men or bladder muscle problems.
This tissue lines organs and structures in the body, protecting or enclosing them. Usually abbreviated as ATP. The Adequate Intake is used when there isn't enough information to set a recommended dietary allowance RDA. For example, using chemotherapy after surgery or radiation treatment for cancer.
Changes include faster heartbeat, more rapid breathing, greater energy, and higher blood pressure. Also called epinephrine. Often used to describe a form of exercise, aerobic exercise. Examples include brisk walking, running, or cycling. Often due to a brain or neurological condition. AIDS: abbreviation for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, the most advanced stage of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus HIV. Abnormal levels of this substance may indicate liver or kidney disease.
Sometimes referred to as ADH. Also known as alcoholism. Different alleles produce variations in inherited characteristics, such as eye color. The most common type of allergy, it is caused by an IgE-mediated immune response to inhaled airborne allergens. Also used to treat some prostate gland problems. Alpha blockers are also known as alpha-adrenergic antagonists, alpha-adrenergic blocking agents, and alpha-adrenergic blockers.
They are where oxygen enters and carbon dioxide leaves the bloodstream. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive brain disease that causes memory loss, impaired thinking, and personality changes. AMD: Abbreviation for age-related macular degeneration, a potentially blinding condition that destroys sharp central vision. Amsler grid: A tool used to check for vision problems, particularly macular degeneration. The grid looks like graph paper with a dot in the center. Often refers to a form of short, high intensity exercise, known as anaerobic exercise.
Examples include sprinting and weight lifting. The condition appears to involve a heightened response by the hair follicle to androgen levels in the body. It uses x-rays and the injection of a fluid called a contrast agent that can be seen on the x-rays.
It is the precursor to the active form, angiotensin II. Like ACE inhibitors, they keep coronary arteries open, lower blood pressure, and reduce the heart's workload. Usually abbreviated as ACE. These drugs stop the production of angiotensin II. This lowers blood pressure and reduces the heart's workload.
Usually abbreviated as ACE inhibitor. A difference between the two indicates the presence of peripheral artery disease. Causes back pain and stiffness and can limit movement. It works to help balance movement and ward off injury. Anticoagulants are sometimes called blood thinners even though they do not thin the blood. Commonly used anticoagulant drugs include heparin and warfarin. Usually abbreviated as APP.
ARB: Abbreviation for angiotensin II receptor blockers, a class of drugs that blocks the effects of angiotensin. Sometimes called hardening of the arteries. Arteriosclerosis occurs when cholesterol-rich plaque forms on the inner lining of arteries atherosclerosis , when artery walls become calcified, or when high blood pressure thickens the muscular wall of arteries.
Also, the process of suctioning fluid, tissue, or other substances from the body. They provide residents with supervision and certain services, such as meals, transportation, or help with dressing, grooming, and other daily activities. Also known as tinea pedis. Also called C Also known as eczema. ATP: Abbreviation for adenosine triphosphate, an energy-storing molecule that is found in all human cells. There are two of these—the right atrium and the left atrium. Because blood isn't pumped out of these chambers fully, it may pool and form clots that could lead to a stroke.
A major part of the electrical system in the heart that acts as a gateway between the atria and the ventricles. An electrical signal generated by the sinoatrial node the heart's natural pacemaker moves through the heart until it reaches the atrioventricular node, a cluster of cells at the bottom of the right atrium.
The AV node delays the signal before it is passed to the ventricles. This lets the atria fully contract before the ventricles contract. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body; the left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs. It also plays an important role in the fight or flight response to danger. AV node: Abbreviation for atrioventricular node, a major part of the electrical system in the heart that acts as a gateway between the atria and the ventricles.
B cell: White blood cells that come from bone marrow, and produce antibodies to fight off disease. Some bacteria cause disease, although most are harmless. A surgeon inserts and inflates a tiny balloon. It widens the blocked artery then expands a small wire mesh tube to keep the artery open.
A small, deflated balloon is inserted into the area and inflated to widen it. It involves swallowing a barium solution, which coats the esophagus and makes it possible for x-rays to see the inside of the intestine.
Barrett's esophagus: The abnormal growth of stomach or small intestine cells in the esophagus, resulting from damage caused by the reflux of stomach acid; occasionally may transform into cancer. Basal cell carcinoma doesn't spread to internal organs. Often called BPH. Bernstein test: A test to try to reproduce heartburn symptoms; used by doctors to diagnose GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Used to treat high blood pressure, heart rhythm problems, migraines, panic attacks, and other conditions. Beta blockers, also known as beta adrenergic blocking agents, are used to treat many cardiovascular conditions, including abnormal heart rhythms, angina, and high blood pressure.
They also improve survival after a heart attack. Binswanger's dementia: A type of dementia caused when blood flow is interrupted to the white matter of the brain, which lies beneath the cerebral cortex. It is a type of flavonoid. It refers to a post-treatment increase in the level of prostate-specific antigen in the bloodstream, indicating that prostate cancer has recurred or spread following the original treatment.
Also called biochemical failure. BMD: Abbreviation for bone mineral density, the amount of mineralized bone tissue in a given area. BMI: Abbreviation for body-mass index, a measure of body fat estimated from a person's height and weight. A healthy BMI is defined as Using English units, multiply weight in pounds by , then divide the result by height in inches, and divide that result by height in inches.
Alternatively, a single large dose of a medication given intravenously. Botox: Brand name for a drug made of botulinum toxin type A that is injected into muscles and weakens them to ease the appearance of wrinkles. Bouchard's nodes: Hard, bony growths that form on the middle joints of fingers in people with osteoarthritis. BPH: Abbreviation for benign prostatic hyperplasia, a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that obstructs the flow of urine.
Broca's area: The part of the brain in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere responsible for language comprehension and speech. When referring to the heart, shorthand for coronary artery bypass surgery, used to divert blood flow around a blocked coronary artery. CABG: Abbreviation for coronary artery bypass graft. Surgery to improve blood flow to the heart by diverting blood around a blocked artery.
Reducing greenhouse gas GHG emissions will reduce the occurrence of extreme events and the likelihood of abrupt changes. Abrupt changes can be irreversible on human time scales and, as tipping points, bring natural systems to novel conditions. To reduce risks that emerge from these impacts of climate change, communities can protect themselves or accommodate to the new environment. In the last resort, they may retreat from exposed areas. Governance that builds on diverse expertise and considers a variety of actions is best equipped to manage remaining risks. Climate change is projected to influence extreme events and to potentially cause abrupt changes in the ocean and the cryosphere. Both these phenomena can add to the other, slow-onset impacts of climate change, such as a global warming or sea level rise SLR.
Respiratory disease , any of the diseases and disorders of the airways and the lungs that affect human respiration. Diseases of the respiratory system may affect any of the structures and organs that have to do with breathing , including the nasal cavities, the pharynx or throat , the larynx , the trachea or windpipe , the bronchi and bronchioles, the tissues of the lungs , and the respiratory muscles of the chest cage. This article discusses the signs and symptoms of respiratory disease , the natural defenses of the human respiratory system, the methods of detecting respiratory disease, and the different diseases of the respiratory system. For more information about the anatomy of the human respiratory system and the process of respiration, see human respiratory system. The symptoms of lung disease are relatively few.
Blood is arguably the most important bodily fluid and its analysis provides crucial health status information. A first routine measure to narrow down diagnosis in clinical practice is the differential blood count, determining the frequency of all major blood cells. What is lacking to advance initial blood diagnostics is an unbiased and quick functional assessment of blood that can narrow down the diagnosis and generate specific hypotheses. In a drop of blood we can identify all major blood cells and characterize their pathological changes in several disease conditions in vitro and in patient samples. This approach takes previous results of mechanical studies on specifically isolated blood cells to the level of application directly in blood and adds a functional dimension to conventional blood analysis.
Back to Home. Home Back to Home. Health A to Z. F Fabricated or induced illness Face blindness, see Prosopagnosia face blindness Fainting Falls Farting flatulence Febrile seizures Feeling sick nausea Female genital mutilation FGM Femoral hernia repair Fibroids Fibromyalgia First aid Fits children with fever , see Febrile seizures Fits seizures , see What to do if someone has a seizure fit Flat feet Flat head syndrome, see Plagiocephaly and brachycephaly flat head syndrome Floaters and flashes in the eyes Flu Fluoride Foetal alcohol syndrome Food allergy Food colours and hyperactivity Food intolerance Food poisoning Foot drop Foot pain Foreskin problems, see Tight foreskin phimosis and paraphimosis Frontotemporal dementia Frostbite Frozen shoulder Functional neurological disorder, see Medically unexplained symptoms Fungal nail infection Back to top.
Richard D. Hockett, Sandra C. Kirkwood, Bruce H. Mitlak, Willard H. The first draft of the human genome was published recently by two independent groups 1 , 2. This important advance has led to a host of editorials describing how knowledge derived from the human genome will revolutionize medicine and drug development.
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Workbook Answers. Chapter 6. Diseases and Conditions of the Integumentary System Warts are cutaneous manifestations of human papillomavirus.Reply
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