electronic devices and circuit theory pdf

Electronic devices and circuit theory pdf

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Electronic devices and circuit theory (robert boylestad)(1)

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Our sincerest appreciation must be extended to the instructors who have used the text and sent in comments, corrections, and suggestions. We also want to thank Rex David-son, Production Editor at Prentice Hall, for keeping together the many detailed as-pects of production. We wish to thank those individuals who have shared their suggestions and evalua-tions of this text throughout its many edievalua-tions.

The company manufactures analog, mixed-signal and digital signal processing DSP integrated circuits ICs used in electronic equipment. The electronic devices book by Robert Boylestad covers the topics viz. Download Free PDF.

Table of Contents

Our sincerest appreciation must be extended to the instructors who have used the text and sent in comments, corrections, and suggestions. We also want to thank Rex David-son, Production Editor at Prentice Hall, for keeping together the many detailed as-pects of production. We wish to thank those individuals who have shared their suggestions and evalua-tions of this text throughout its many edievalua-tions.

The comments from these individu-als have enabled us to present Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory in this Seventh Edition:. Phillip D. Gary C. Bocksch Charles S. Albert L. Kenneth E. George T. Thomas E. Newman L. Robert A. Powell Oakland Community College. Saeed A. Donald P. Parker M. Katherine L. Wilson Motorola Inc. Charles E. It is now some 50 years since the first transistor was introduced on December 23, For those of us who experienced the change from glass envelope tubes to the solid-state era, it still seems like a few short years ago.

The first edition of this text contained heavy coverage of tubes, with succeeding editions involving the important decision of how much coverage should be dedicated to tubes and how much to semi-conductor devices. It no longer seems valid to mention tubes at all or to compare the advantages of one over the other—we are firmly in the solid-state era.

The miniaturization that has resulted leaves us to wonder about its limits. Com-plete systems now appear on wafers thousands of times smaller than the single ele-ment of earlier networks. New designs and systems surface weekly. The engineer be-comes more and more limited in his or her knowledge of the broad range of advances— it is difficult enough simply to stay abreast of the changes in one area of research or development.

We have also reached a point at which the primary purpose of the con-tainer is simply to provide some means of handling the device or system and to pro-vide a mechanism for attachment to the remainder of the network. Miniaturization appears to be limited by three factors each of which will be addressed in this text : the quality of the semiconductor material itself, the network design technique, and the limits of the manufacturing and processing equipment.

The first electronic device to be introduced is called the diode. It is the simplest of semiconductor devices but plays a very vital role in electronic systems, having char-acteristics that closely match those of a simple switch.

It will appear in a range of ap-plications, extending from the simple to the very complex. In addition to the details of its construction and characteristics, the very important data and graphs to be found on specification sheets will also be covered to ensure an understanding of the termi-nology employed and to demonstrate the wealth of information typically available from manufacturers. The term ideal will be used frequently in this text as new devices are introduced.

It refers to any device or system that has ideal characteristics—perfect in every way. It provides a basis for comparison, and it reveals where improvements can still be made.

The ideal diode is a two-terminal device having the symbol and characteris-tics shown in Figs. Ideally, a diode will conduct current in the direction defined by the arrow in the symbol and act like an open circuit to any attempt to establish current in the oppo-site direction. In essence:. The characteristics of an ideal diode are those of a switch that can conduct current in only one direction. In the description of the elements to follow, it is critical that the various letter symbols, voltage polarities, and current directions be defined.

If the polarity of the applied voltage is consistent with that shown in Fig. If a reverse voltage is applied, the characteristics to the left are pertinent. If the current through the diode has the direction indicated in Fig. One of the important parameters for the diode is the resistance at the point or re-gion of operation.

If we consider the conduction rere-gion defined by the direction of ID. The ideal diode, therefore, is a short circuit for the region of conduction. Consider the region of negatively applied potential third quadrant of Fig. The ideal diode, therefore, is an open circuit in the region of nonconduction. In review, the conditions depicted in Fig.

Figure 1. In general, it is relatively simple to determine whether a diode is in the region of conduction or nonconduction simply by noting the direction of the current ID. As indicated earlier, the primary purpose of this section is to introduce the char-acteristics of an ideal device for comparison with the charchar-acteristics of the commer-cial variety. As we progress through the next few sections, keep the following ques-tions in mind:. Is the reverse-bias resistance sufficiently large to permit an open-circuit ap-proximation?

The label semiconductor itself provides a hint as to its characteristics. The prefix semi-is normally applied to a range of levels midway between two limits. The term conductor is applied to any material that will support a generous flow of charge when a voltage source of limited magnitude is applied across its terminals. An insulator is a material that offers a very low level of conductivity under pressure from an applied voltage source.

A semiconductor, therefore, is a material that has a conductivity level some-where between the extremes of an insulator and a conductor. Inversely related to the conductivity of a material is its resistance to the flow of charge, or current. That is, the higher the conductivity level, the lower the resistance level. In tables, the term resistivity , Greek letter rho is often used when compar-ing the resistance levels of materials.

In metric units, the resistivity of a material is measured in -cm or -m. The units of -cm are derived from the substitution of the units for each quantity of Fig. In fact, if the area of Fig. This fact will be helpful to remember as we compare resistivity levels in the discus-sions to follow.

In Table 1. Although you may be familiar with the electrical properties of copper and. As you will find in the chapters to follow, they are certainly not the only two semiconductor materials. They are, how-ever, the two materials that have received the broadest range of interest in the devel-opment of semiconductor devices.

In recent years the shift has been steadily toward silicon and away from germanium, but germanium is still in modest production. Note in Table 1. Eighteen places separate the placement of the decimal point for one number from the other. Ge and Si have re-ceived the attention they have for a number of reasons. One very important consid-eration is the fact that they can be manufactured to a very high purity level.

In fact, recent advances have reduced impurity levels in the pure material to 1 part in 10 bil-lion ,,, One might ask if these low impurity levels are really nec-essary. They certainly are if you consider that the addition of one part impurity of the proper type per million in a wafer of silicon material can change that material from a relatively poor conductor to a good conductor of electricity. We are obviously dealing with a whole new spectrum of comparison levels when we deal with the semi-conductor medium.

Further reasons include the fact that their charac-teristics can be altered significantly through the application of heat or light—an im-portant consideration in the development of heat- and light-sensitive devices. Some of the unique qualities of Ge and Si noted above are due to their atomic structure. The atoms of both materials form a very definite pattern that is periodic in nature i. One complete pattern is called a crystal and the periodic arrangement of the atoms a lattice.

For Ge and Si the crystal has the three-dimensional diamond structure of Fig. Any material composed solely of re-peating crystal structures of the same kind is called a single-crystal structure. For semiconductor materials of practical application in the electronics field, this single-crystal feature exists, and, in addition, the periodicity of the structure does not change significantly with the addition of impurities in the doping process.

Let us now examine the structure of the atom itself and note how it might affect the electrical characteristics of the material. As you are aware, the atom is composed of three basic particles: the electron, the proton, and the neutron. In the atomic lat-tice, the neutrons and protons form the nucleus, while the electrons revolve around the nucleus in a fixed orbit. The Bohr models of the two most commonly used semi-conductors, germanium and silicon, are shown in Fig.

As indicated by Fig. In each case, there are 4 electrons in the outermost valence shell. The potential ionization potential required to remove any one of these 4 valence electrons is lower than that required for any other electron in the struc-ture.

In a pure germanium or silicon crystal these 4 valence electrons are bonded to 4 adjoining atoms, as shown in Fig. Both Ge and Si are referred to as tetravalent atoms because they each have four valence electrons. A bonding of atoms, strengthened by the sharing of electrons, is called cova-lent bonding. The term free reveals that their motion is quite sensitive to applied electric fields such as established by voltage sources or any difference in potential.

Electronic devices and circuit theory (robert boylestad)(1)

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Electronic Circuit Pdf. The output of this circuit is negative. Electronic Circuits Diagrams. This circuit provide automatic current limiting up to 8. You can use this efficient and user-friendly piece of software in order to demonstrate or run simulations of various electronic circuits. EasyEDA is a free and easy to use circuit design, circuit simulator and pcb design that runs in your web Exporting as pdf is recommended: pdf gives good quality printed output and a small file size. Electronic Devices — Floyd, Pearson Education.

Download Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory free book PDF Author: Robert L. Boylestad, Louis Nashelsky Pages: ISBN: Format: Epub.

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