gnss applications and methods pdf

Gnss applications and methods pdf

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GNSS applications

An Introduction to GNSS

University of Chinese Academy of Sciences , China. Global Navigation Satellite System GNSS plays a key role in high precision navigation, positioning, timing, and scientific questions related to precise positioning. This is a highly precise, continuous, all-weather, and real-time technique.

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Benjamin Crosby, Idaho State University crosby isu. These materials have been reviewed for their alignment with the Next Generation Science Standards as detailed below. Overview Students plan and conduct a geodetic survey and analyze the resulting time series. Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking: Apply techniques of algebra and functions to represent and solve scientific and engineering problems. Planning and Carrying Out Investigations: Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data e.

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations: Plan an investigation or test a design individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence as part of building and revising models, supporting explanations for phenomena, or testing solutions to problems.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Consider limitations of data analysis e. Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Apply concepts of statistics and probability including determining function fits to data, slope, intercept, and correlation coefficient for linear fits to scientific and engineering questions and problems, using digital tools when feasible.

Systems and System Models: When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and initial conditions of the system need to be defined and their inputs and outputs analyzed and described using models. Stability and Change: Change and rates of change can be quantified and modeled over very short or very long periods of time. Some system changes are irreversible. Patterns: Empirical evidence is needed to identify patterns. Developing Possible Solutions: Both physical models and computers can be used in various ways to aid in the engineering design process.

Computers are useful for a variety of purposes, such as running simulations to test different ways of solving a problem or to see which one is most efficient or economical; and in making a persuasive presentation to a client about how a given design will meet his or her needs. This rigorous, structured process includes: team-based development to ensure materials are appropriate across multiple educational settings. This activity has received positive reviews in a peer review process involving five review categories.

The five categories included in the process are. GNSS data can produce high-accuracy, high-resolution measurements in common reference frames. Static GNSS methods take advantage of long occupation times to resolve fine measurement and time-series data to capture events such as tectonic deformation, earthquakes, groundwater depletion, and slow-moving landforms.

This unit focuses on design and field execution of simple static surveys, emphasizing the benefits and limitations of the technique. Students will learn which applications the technique is most applicable for as well as the standard data-processing techniques.

Additionally, students advance their understanding of GNSS systems through interpretation of field data from static surveys and public data sets of continuous-operation stations. This unit prepares students to design and implement a survey of their own through hands-on instruction and demonstration of rapid-static or static techniques in a field setting. In this module, we use the term GNSS to refer generically to the use of one or more satellite constellations to determine position.

The unit is appropriate for academic year courses with field components or a summer field camp. This unit builds upon Unit 1's fundamentals such as GNSS systems, precision, accuracy and uncertainty and assumes that users have either completed Unit 1 or had previous training in GNSS concepts and terminology. However, we encourage that the initial lecture be followed by a field experience with hands-on demonstration of static GNSS equipment or a visit to a PBO or other permanent static GPS site.

Students should use printed handouts for note taking, either directly or as a guide for personal field books. The final portion of the unit requires computer access with GNSS processing software appropriate to the brand of hardware used. An internet connection is not mandatory, but it will require additional preparatory work if a connection is not available. This unit requires that either pre-processed data is available for students from a previous year or occupation, for example or that additional time is accounted for processing positional data.

OPUS is currently the best possible solution for a rapid processing, although it is not the best in terms of absolute accuracy a few centimeters at best.

Using OPUS typically requires a hour period between acquiring data and submitting it for processing. This means the course can be ideal for interleaving other activities or academic semester courses where this time is not an issue. In a field camp setting, it may be easiest to have prepared or pre-processed results or the ability to return to the GNSS project after a few days. The lecture is presented with a PowerPoint that illustrates static surveys, their applications and advantages, a brief processing overview, and a review of interpreting position results.

This manual introduces students to the various types of static surveys, equipment, and methods for a successful survey. The methods include survey design, execution, and processing. It is not critical to read the manual in its entirety but for students to understand the basic components of a system and the general steps for a successful survey. The lecture and manual introduction should take at most one hour.

Following the lecture and the introduction to the manual, a short field component should introduce students to the static GNSS hardware either through a hands-on demonstration of setting up a unit over a benchmark or a visit to a permanent, continuous station like a PBO site.

After being introduced to the manual, students should be given the 'Introduction to Time Series' assignment. This assignment will correlate with the last part of the lecture and ask students to interpret static GNSS data from continuously operating and campaign sites.

Though there are already sites selected for the assignment, you can modify this to address a different field area. The assignment solidifies the concept of position velocities, vectors, and interpretation of events in a time series.

Students will need a small ruler, pencil, and possibly a calculator for the assignment. The assignment should take students 1 to 1. Students should be provided with the necessary equipment and take part in an example static survey including setting up equipment, collecting metadata, surveying the location, processing data, and reading results. Students should then get hands-on experience with the equipment and survey a location.

They will survey one or more locations and fill out thorough field notes about both the field site example field notebook Acrobat PDF 1. It is advantageous here to have several pieces of equipment so that no more than 4 or 5 students are working at a single receiver.

Students can rotate jobs between writing notes, taking measurements, and operating the receiver. Typically, a rapid-static survey occupation of at least 15 minutes to 2 hours will be ideal, unless this activity can be alternated or interleaved with another activity. When the survey is complete, students should then be shown how to retrieve RINEX data files from the receivers and process them through an appropriate program.

If there is access to an internet connection, students can process through OPUS directly; if not, pre-processed results are needed. Note: OPUS requires approximately 24 hours before positional corrections are available for a given time period.

That means you will need to account for this time delay with another activity. If you are teaching Kinematic GNSS as well, a static survey can be set up first and allowed to run while the other unit is taught. Once data is submitted to OPUS for processing, results are typically returned within 1 or 2 hours. Be prepared with an alternative data set if OPUS fails to return a corrected position.

This file is only accessible to verified educators. If you are a teacher or faculty member and would like access to this file please enter your email address to be verified as belonging to an educator.

Email Adress Submit. The time-series exercise is best employed if it uses examples from local areas or sites that are significant for the survey students will complete later. For example, the original assignment is written for three stations distributed across the Borah Peak Fault, the feature that students would then survey a leveling line across. This allowed students to gain a tectonic motion perspective for the leveling line data they were acquiring and familiarized them with the relative merits of the two different approaches to a GNSS survey.

If you wish to adapt this to another region, you can search for stations using data interfaces such as:. Blank graph see right may also be helpful if the ones within the existing exercises are not the correct scale.

Much of the formative assessment can be done through observations of and discussions with students individually, in pairs, or sometimes in the whole group. This should be done periodically throughout the process as it helps gauge student understanding and weaknesses. Students should be encouraged to answer their own questions through deductive reasoning. A large portion of the grading should be attributed to students' individual participation and contribution to the group effort.

Students will turn in their student exercise. Questions should be graded for completeness. Students measure a leveling line or other campaign deployment scenario. Students should be assessed mostly on their ability to perform the survey and to place the survey's results in a broader context or social implication.

Already used some of these materials in a course? Considering using these materials with your students? We encourage the reuse and dissemination of the material on this site for noncommercial purposes as long as attribution to the original material on the GETSI site is retained. Material on this page is offered under a Creative Commons license unless otherwise noted below. Your Account. Learn More. The materials engage students in understanding the earth system as it intertwines with key societal issues.

The collection is freely available and ready to be adapted by undergraduate educators across a range of courses including: general education or majors courses in Earth-focused disciplines such as geoscience or environmental science, social science, engineering, and other sciences, as well as courses for interdisciplinary programs.

The instructor material for this module are available for offline viewing below. Downloadable versions of the student materials are available from this location on the student materials pages. This activity has been reviewed by 2 review processes. This activity was selected for the On the Cutting Edge Reviewed Teaching Collection This activity has received positive reviews in a peer review process involving five review categories.

This page first made public: Apr 24, Unit 3 Learning Outcomes. Show More info on how learning outcomes connect to science literacy principles and module goals. Supports Module Goals Time-Series Adaptation The time-series exercise is best employed if it uses examples from local areas or sites that are significant for the survey students will complete later.

If you wish to adapt this to another region, you can search for stations using data interfaces such as: Plate Boundary Observatory Network Health Map. Zoom into your area of interest. Click on a individual station and then the station name to get to the station info and data page.

Formative Much of the formative assessment can be done through observations of and discussions with students individually, in pairs, or sometimes in the whole group. Unit 3: Time Series Borah Fault - example student work 1 This file is only accessible to verified educators. Unit 3: Time Series Borah Fault - example student work 2 -- private instructor-only file.

GNSS applications

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. GNSS signals are influenced by the transmission media and interaction with surfaces near the receiving antenna. Observations of the modified signals from the ground and from airborne and spaceborne platforms allow for scientific study of the ionosphere, atmosphere, and Earth surface. Methods using standard ground-based receivers provide estimates of atmospheric water vapor and soil moisture. Specialized receivers measuring occulted signals enable high-resolution estimates of atmospheric density and temperature.

Benjamin Crosby, Idaho State University crosby isu. These materials have been reviewed for their alignment with the Next Generation Science Standards as detailed below. Overview Students plan and conduct a geodetic survey and analyze the resulting time series. Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking: Apply techniques of algebra and functions to represent and solve scientific and engineering problems. Planning and Carrying Out Investigations: Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data e.


CHAPTER 1. Global Navigation Satellite Systems: Present and Future. 1. Introduction. 1. Current and Planned GNSS Constellations. 2.


An Introduction to GNSS

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The first systems were developed in the 20th century, mainly to help military personnel find their way, but location awareness soon found many civilian applications. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For broader coverage of this topic, see Satellite navigation. This article needs additional citations for verification.

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