File Name: league of nations and human rights .zip
The League of Nations was an international diplomatic group developed after World War I as a way to solve disputes between countries before they erupted into open warfare. A precursor to the United Nations, the League achieved some victories but had a mixed record of success, sometimes putting self-interest before becoming involved with conflict resolution, while also contending with governments that did not recognize its authority. The League of Nations has its origins in the Fourteen Points speech of President Woodrow Wilson , part of a presentation given in January outlining of his ideas for peace after the carnage of World War I. Wilson envisioned an organization that was charged with resolving conflicts before they exploded into bloodshed and warfare. By December of the same year, Wilson left for Paris to transform his 14 Points into what would become the Treaty of Versailles.
What Are Human Rights? Its roots, however, lie in earlier tradition and documents of many cultures; it took the catalyst of World War II to propel human rights onto the global stage and into the global conscience. Most societies have had traditions similar to the "golden rule" of "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. In addition, the Inca and Aztec codes of conduct and justice and an Iroquois Constitution were Native American sources that existed well before the 18th century. In fact, all societies, whether in oral or written tradition, have had systems of propriety and justice as well as ways of tending to the health and welfare of their members. Yet many of these documents, when originally translated into policy, excluded women, people of color, and members of certain social, religious, economic, and political groups. Nevertheless, oppressed people throughout the world have drawn on the principles these documents express to support revolutions that assert the right to self-determination.
This article examines the protection of minority rights under League of Nations. It explains that the League was created to be a specialized institution for minorities but the mechanism for responding to the grievances of the minorities was developed only after the Versailles peace conference in — It discusses the main principles and structures of the League of Nations mechanism and the complaints procedure. This article also explains that the League of Nations was replaced by the United Nations in but its minority protection system was not included in the responsibilities of the new organization. It also highlights the contribution of the League to the evolution of the doctrine of the international legal protection of human rights.
The original Members of the League of Nations shall be those of the Signatories which are named in the Annex to this Covenant and also such of those other States named in the Annex as shall accede without reservation to this Covenant. Such accession shall be effected by a Declaration deposited with the Secretariat within two months of the coming into force of the Covenant. Notice thereof shall be sent to all other Members of the League. Any fully self-governing State, Dominion or Colony not named in the Annex may become a Member of the League if its admission is agreed to by two-thirds of the Assembly, provided that it shall give effective guarantees of its sincere intention to observe its international obligations, and shall accept such regulations as may be prescribed by the League in regard to its military, naval and air forces and armaments. Any Member of the League may, after two years' notice of its intention so to do, withdraw from the League, provided that all its international obligations and all its obligations under this Covenant shall have been fulfilled at the time of its withdrawal.
F or the two decades of its effective existence , the League of Nations was a favored subject of academic research. International lawyers, historians, and political scientists across the globe scrutinized and debated every aspect of its working; leading American scholars of the period—among them James Shotwell, Quincy Wright, and Raymond Leslie Buell—devoted much of their lives to investigating and often to supporting its ideals. Most users should sign in with their email address.
League of Nations , an organization for international cooperation established on January 10, , at the initiative of the victorious Allied powers at the end of World War I. The League of Nations was an organization for international cooperation. It was established on January 10, , at the initiative of the victorious Allied powers at the end of World War I and was formally disbanded on April 19, Although ultimately it was unable to fulfill the hopes of its founders, its creation was an event of decisive importance in the history of international relations.
In the industrialized countries of the early twentieth century, there were no standards of protection for children. It was common for them to work alongside adults in unsanitary and unsafe conditions. Growing recognition of the injustices of their situation, propelled by greater understanding of the developmental needs of children, led to a movement to better protect them. International standards on child rights have advanced dramatically over the past century, but gaps remain in meeting those ideals.
The organisation's primary goals, as stated in its Covenant , included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. The first meeting of the Council of the League took place on 16 January , and the first meeting of Assembly of the League took place on 15 November In U. The diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a fundamental shift from the preceding hundred years.
After the end of World War II a series of conventions and declarations began to articulate universal human rights. A convention sometimes called a covenant is a binding treaty, coming into force upon ratification by a certain number of States. A declaration is not legally binding but carries moral weight because it is adopted by the international community. The United Nations was established, partly to continue the work of the dissolved League of Nations, in response to proposals for the creation of a new world body to monitor relations between States. The United Nations is an international organisation representing the body of States, established according to the United Nations Charter in There are currently one hundred and ninety two member States. This was the first time that countries agreed on a comprehensive statement of inalienable human rights.
Со всех сторон открывались ворота, и люди вливались в поток. Колокола звонили где-то совсем рядом, очень громко. Беккер чувствовал жжение в боку, но кровотечение прекратилось.
Беккер промолчал. - Подними! - срывающимся голосом завопил панк. Беккер попробовал его обойти, но парень ему не позволил. - Я сказал тебе - подними. Одуревшие от наркотиков панки за соседними столиками начали поворачивать головы в их сторону, привлеченные перепалкой. - Не советую тебе так себя вести, парень, - тихо сказал Беккер.
Невероятно! - воскликнул он и снова швырнул трубку. - Шифровалка вот-вот взорвется, а Стратмор не отвечает на звонки. ГЛАВА 98 Халохот выбежал из святилища кардинала Хуэрры на слепящее утреннее солнце. Прикрыв рукой глаза, он выругался и встал возле собора в маленьком дворике, образованном высокой каменной стеной, западной стороной башни Гиральда и забором из кованого железа. За открытыми воротами виднелась площадь, на которой не было ни души, а за ней, вдали, - стены Санта-Круса. Беккер не мог исчезнуть, тем более так. Халохот оглядел дворик.
Мидж, послушай. - Он засмеялся. - Попрыгунчик - древняя история. Стратмор дал маху. Но надо идти вперед, а не оглядываться все время .
В некотором отдалении от него возникла фигура человека, приближавшегося медленно и неотвратимо. В руке его поблескивал пистолет.