File Name: transactional analysis a new and effective method of group therapy .zip
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Metrics details. A Correction to this article was published on 06 February The imprisoned women usually have low self-esteem and suffer from various physical and mental complaints; they may suffer from feelings of emptiness, isolation, and depression. Transactional analysis TA is part of a comprehensive system attributed to the individual and social psychiatry for personal development of self-esteem among the imprisoned women.
Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Despite all the conservative approaches to family institution, it is observed that this institution has experienced tremendous structural and functional changes over the last century. These changes have been caused by different transformational factors and elements . On the other hand, the latest statistics show that the divorce rate is rising in the West, especially America .
Studies demonstrate that one of the factors which over time have managed to reduce or eliminate the love and interest between couples and caused mental health problems and continued cold and indifferent relationships and finally completion of a relationship is marital burnout . Burnout is the painful state of physical, emotional and psychological exhaustion that affects those who expect dramatic love makes their life meaningful.
This state occurs when they notice that despite all their efforts, their life is not meaningful and will not become so . Marital burnout is physical, emotional and psychological exhaustion that originates from the mismatch between expectations and reality. Accumulation of psychological pressures that weaken the love, gradual increase of fatigue, monotony of life and accumulation of small annoyances helps the incidence of burnout .
Thinking, feeling and behavior are interacting with each other and affect and take the influence from one another . Forbearance is a manifestation of patience of every human being when he is under pressure, especially when faced with long-term problems.
Forbearance is a level of individual tolerance before he shows a negative reaction. Additionally, this term is applied to refer to the quality of consistency in individuals. In evolutionary psychology and cognitive neuroscience, forbearance has been examined as a difficult decision between two choices e.
In all organisms, the tendency to get short-term rewards is greater than long-term rewards although mostly long-term rewards have more benefits compared to short-term rewards . One of the theories that have effective applications in improving human relations is the theory of Transactional Analysis. Transactional analysis is one of the most tangible theories of modern psychology.
This theory was proposed by Eric Berne and is widely used with the constructs of parenthood I, adulthood I, childhood I in clinical, therapeutic and organizational affairs and in growth psychology, communication, management, personality, relations and behavior .
Relationship analysis is basically used in marital relations and social bonds. In these situations, relationship analysis can provide beneficial and satisfactory forecasts and reviews. According to  , transactional analysis is one of the most effective psychological theories that help the growing trend of happiness in people through solving the problems in human relations.
Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of transactional analysis in improving the emotional breakdown of students  , personality states, self-esteem and clinical symptoms of people with emotional breakdown  , reducing marital conflicts  , marital satisfaction  , methods of coping with stress  , preventing the increase of conflict and violence  , development of communication skills, understanding of others and self-expression  and marital intimacy .
Many researches have investigated the effectiveness of group therapy based on transactional analysis. But few studies have focused on examining the impact of this method on couple burnout and subsequently marital forbearance. Hence, the present study can fill the gap in this area. On the other hand, given the increase in the divorce rate of Iran and its association with marital burnout and forbearance, this research can provide a proper treatment method to reduce the rate of divorce or modify the lifestyle of families.
Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of psychotherapy based on transactional analysis in marital burnout and forbearance of female students. The present research was a semi-experimental study pretest-post test design with unequal control group.
The target population comprised all married female students studying in humanities subjects in Neishabur Islamic Azad University in the academic year , who referred to the University Counseling Office during August to October in order to solve their marital conflicts. The research sample included 24 of these students, who were selected voluntarily and through available sampling method and were randomly assigned into two experimental and control groups.
The experimental group received 10 one-half hour sessions of treatment based on transactional analysis while in the meantime; the control group received nutritional trainings.
At first, both groups took a pretest and after the end of treatment, both groups took a posttest. The structure of transactional analysis sessions is as follows:.
First session: After introducing the group members, rules and regulations of the group were presented by the group leader. The process of the session involved the use of verbal and nonverbal messages and simple structural analysis of mental states adulthood I, parenthood I and childhood I. The clients were asked to present a brief description of their situation, life history and interpersonal relationships.
Second session: In this session, the therapist discussed the history of Transactional Analysis and provided the conditions for the members to prepare for home assignments. Besides, each member reported a case of his own conversational relationship and the group members were asked to comment on the mentioned relationships. In the following, members were given homework drawing ego gram.
The treatment process in this session included the existence of rules and role of communication rules in respect for self, others, friends and manner of self-expression. During this session, an assignment drawing ego gram based on complex structural analysis was given. Fourth session: After reviewing the assignment given in the previous session, the group members became familiar with the role of communication patterns in personal and social life.
Training of caressing and cross and complementary interrelationships was among the interventions of this session. Involuntary reconstructions of childhood childhood I and basic life situations were fully described. Then, reconstructions of parental I were done in a simple language along with examples.
Sixth session: The members were asked to express the mental engagements they face. These engagements can include being far from family, business concerns in the future, student life, relationship issues with family and friends, marriage, exams and so on. The treatment process covered the training of reconstruction of the state of adulthood I.
Then, the members were asked again to discuss their engagements and interactions and exchange their opinions. In this session, training of hidden relationships and double interactions and also an assignment together with some examples of hidden relationships were provided.
Therapeutic intervention of this session included the training of four existential situations and healing of the child within. In this session, the group members were made to analyze the states of childhood, adulthood and parenthood and apply the manner of establishing a relationship between these states in their everyday behavior. Afterwards, an assignment was given to the members questions and answers with dominant and non-dominant hand.
Then, the members experienced practical work role-playing and communication skills training. Also, each member who was willing to state his life stories talked about them.
Besides, training time management concepts and methods of adult activation was among the interventions of this session. Then, the group members presented some of their own mental states and current behaviors in the form of role-playing and feedback to each other. Inhibitors, drives and educational decision making were discussed. Questions were answered and the previous sessions were reviewed.
In this session, all the therapeutic programs and purposes were examined and feedbacks about the progress of treatment and their reception were analyzed by the members. Therapeutic intervention of the last session included gaining executive power by adulthood I, applying the lessons learned from Transactional Analysis in group environments, family and society in order to achieve self-leadership.
Meanwhile, no specific psychological treatment was applied for the control group and the members of this group received only nutritional trainings. Before and after the implementation of the independent variable, all the subjects of experimental and control groups were evaluated through completing Couple Burnout Measure CBM and marital forbearance questionnaire.
This measure is a self-assessment tool that has been designed to measure the degree of marital burnout among couples. It includes three main components of physical fatigue e. All these instances are answered on a 7-point scale.
Level 1 shows non-experience of the intended expression and level 7 represents extensive experience of the expression in question . Reliability coefficient of Couple Burnout Measure has shown the internal consistency of the variables in the range of 0. Marital forbearance questionnaire: This questionnaire has been developed by Evans to assess marital for bearance. It includes 29 three-option items. For scoring this scale, the selected options that represent positive attitude are given zero; intermediate options received 2 points and the options indicating negative attitude were given 4 points.
Low scores in this measure suggest high forbearance. Validity coefficient of this test through correlating the scores of this test with Aggression Test AAi was estimated to be around 0. Also, reliability coefficient of this test was reported to be 0. Table 1. Mean and standard deviation of the pretest scores in questionnaires on marital burnout and forbearance. Table 2 shows the results of covariance analysis to test the above hypothesis.
Thus, the research hypothesis is confirmed. That is, group therapy based on transactional analysis has been effective in marital burnout. As can be observed in Table 3 , the mean score of marital burnout questionnaire in the experimental group 1. Table 4 shows the results of covariance analysis to test the above hypothesis. Hence, the research hypothesis is confirmed. That is, group therapy based on transactional analysis has been effective in the forbearance of female students. As can be observed in Table 5 , the mean score of forbearance questionnaire in the experimental group It should be noted that in the.
Table 2. Table 3. Mean of adjusted posttest scores in marital burnout questionnaire. Table 4. Table 5. Mean of adjusted posttest scores in forbearance questionnaire. The present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of group psychotherapy based on transactional analysis in marital burnout and forbearance of married female students.
The research results demonstrated that the main effect is significant. Thus, the first research hypothesis is confirmed. These findings are consistent with the results obtained by other researchers     . In explaining this hypothesis, it can be said that marital burnout occurs due to a set of non-idealistic expectations and vicissitudes of life. According to  , burnout is physical, emotional and mental exhaustion that arises from the mismatch between reality and expectations.
From the perspective of existentialism and psychoanalysis, burnout is an experienced state of physical, emotional and mental fatigue that results from the mismatch between expectation and realities . According to  , symptoms of burnout include general lack of enthusiasm, lack of satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, apathy and lack of interest.
Transactional analysis TA is a psychoanalytic theory and method of therapy wherein social transactions are analyzed to determine the ego state of the communicator whether parent-like, childlike, or adult-like as a basis for understanding behavior. The method deviates from Freudian psychoanalysis which focuses on increasing awareness of the contents of subconsciously held ideas. Eric Berne developed the concept and paradigm of transactional analysis in the late s. Eric Berne presented transactional analysis to the world as a phenomenological approach, supplementing Freud's philosophical construct with observable data. By moving to an interpersonal motivational theory, he placed it both in opposition to the psychoanalytic traditions of his day and within what would become the psychoanalytic traditions of the future. Berne's theory was based on the ideas of Freud but was distinctly different. Freudian psychotherapists focused on client personalities.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of group psychotherapy with transactional analysis TA approach on emotional intelligence EI , executive functions and substance dependency among drug-addicts at rehabilitation centers in Mashhad city, Iran, in In this quasi-experimental study with pretest, posttest, case- control stages, 30 patients were selected from a rehabilitation center and randomly divided into two groups. The case group received 12 sessions of group psychotherapy with transactional analysis approach. Then the effects of independent variable group psychotherapy with TA approach on EI, executive function and drug dependency were assessed.
Six Group Therapies pp Cite as. I have been adventuring with Transactional Analysis TA for more than a dozen years. And it was there I learned my first lesson about TA. It was understandable. Skip to main content Skip to sections.
Eric Berne May 10, — July 15, was a Canadian-born psychiatrist who created the theory of transactional analysis as a way of explaining human behavior. Berne's theory of transactional analysis was based on the ideas of Freud but was distinctly different. Freudian psychotherapists focused on talk therapy as a way of gaining insight to their patient's personalities.
The research aims to describe and test the effectiveness of transactional analysis counseling to increase students self-esteem. A low self-esteem based measurement instruments on self-esteem. Numerical data were analyzed using two independent-sample test Mann Whitney-U test.
Transactional analysis TA is a widely recognised form of modern psychology, and one of the most accessible theories of psychology at that. In simple terms, TA is designed to promote personal growth and change. It is considered a fundamental therapy for well-being and for helping individuals to reach their full potential in all aspects of life. Founded by Eric Berne in the late s, TA therapy is based on the theory that each person has three ego-states: parent, adult and child. These are used along with other key transactional analysis concepts, tools and models to analyse how individuals communicate and to identify what interaction is needed for a better outcome.
Six Group Therapies pp Cite as. I have been adventuring with Transactional Analysis TA for more than a dozen years. And it was there I learned my first lesson about TA. It was understandable.
И одновременно пустит АНБ ко дну.
- Мне необходимо решение. Или мы начинаем отключение, или же мы никогда этого не сделаем. Как только эти два агрессора увидят, что Бастион пал, они издадут боевой клич. Фонтейн ничего не ответил, погруженный в глубокое раздумье. Слова Сьюзан Флетчер о том, что ключ находится в Испании, показались ему обнадеживающими.
Беккера очень удивило, что это кольцо с какой-то невразумительной надписью представляет собой такую важность. Однако Стратмор ничего не объяснил, а Беккер не решился спросить. АНБ, - подумал. - НБ - это, конечно, не болтай. Вот такое агентство.
Ну и ну, - ужаснулась. - Шестьсот сорок семь ссылок на уран, плутоний и атомные бомбы. Похоже, это то, что нам. Сьюзан открыла один из каналов. На экране высветилось предупреждение: Информация, содержащаяся в этом файле, предназначена исключительно для научного использования. Любые частные лица, которые попытаются создать описанные здесь изделия, рискуют подвергнуться смертоносному облучению и или вызвать самопроизвольный взрыв.
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