File Name: group formation and development .zip
In , a psychologist named Bruce Tuckman said that teams go through 5 stages of development: forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning. The stages start from the time that a group first meets until the project ends.
In , a psychologist named Bruce Tuckman said that teams go through 5 stages of development: forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning. The stages start from the time that a group first meets until the project ends. Although, it does make the stages easier to remember. Each is aptly named and plays a vital part in building a high-functioning team.
The first stage of team development is forming, which is a lot like orientation day at college or a new job. You could even compare it to going out on a first date.
The team has just been introduced and everyone is overly polite and pleasant. At the start, most are excited to start something new and to get to know the other team members. As the group starts to familiarize themselves, roles and responsibilities will begin to form. It is important for team members to develop relationships and understand what part each person plays. But, because this stage focuses more on the people than on the work, your team probably won't be very productive yet.
Have you ever reached the point in a relationship where you become aware of a person's characteristics and they frustrate or annoy you? Perhaps they squeeze the toothpaste from the top of the tube instead of the bottom?
Eat with their mouth open? Or they listen to the same Drake song 15 times in a row? Being in a team is like being in a relationship. At first, you may think someone is perfect and flawless.
But, then you realize that they aren't. Once you're aware of their flaws, you either learn to embrace them or the relationship will end quickly. In the storming stage, the reality and weight of completing the task at hand have now hit everyone. The initial feelings of excitement and the need to be polite have likely worn off. Personalities may clash. Members might disagree over how to complete a task or voice their concerns if they feel that someone isn't pulling their weight.
They may even question the authority or guidance of group leaders. But, it is important to remember that most teams experience conflict. If you are the leader, remind members that disagreements are normal. Some teams skip over the storming stage or try to avoid conflict at whatever cost.
Avoidance usually makes the problem grow until it blows up. So, recognize conflicts and resolve them early on. During the norming stage, people start to notice and appreciate their team members' strengths. Groups start to settle into a groove. Everyone is contributing and working as a cohesive unit.
Of course, you may still think that your tech guy's choice in music is obnoxious. But, you also admire his knowledge of web design and coding skills, and value his opinions on anything tech-related. Storming sometimes overlaps with norming. As new tasks arise, groups may still experience a few conflicts. If you've already dealt with disagreement before, it will probably be easier to address this time.
If you've reached the fourth stage, pat yourself on the back. You're on your way to success. In the performing stage, members are confident, motivated and familiar enough with the project and their team that they can operate without supervision. Everyone is on the same page and driving full-speed ahead towards the final goal.
The fourth stage is the one that all groups strive to reach. Yet, some do not make it. They usually fail to overcome conflict and can't work together. In , Tuckman added a fifth stage called adjourning. Sadly, not a perfect rhyme. Once a project ends, the team disbands. This phase is sometimes known as mourning because members have grown close and feel a loss now that the experience is over.
Groups are so in-sync during the performing stage that it seems to happen naturally. The most effective and high-functioning teams are cultivated. Business owners, managers, and entrepreneurs are often viewed as team leaders. If something fails, you may blame yourself. If it succeeds, you'll receive the praise. Of course, those are some big shoes to fill. You don't have to gain superpowers from a serum or create one of the most iconic brands of your generation to be a great leader.
Why does your team or company exist? What values matter to you? What problem will you solve? Why do you need to solve it? All these questions should be answered with a clear purpose and mission statement. It is the framework that will help you make decisions.
It gives you direction. Without it, you'll go nowhere. People get so lost in a specific task that they forget why they are doing it in the first place. It is easy to lose sight of the "big picture". Teams need a clear purpose and mission and should be reminded of them often. Rules may not sound fun, but they clear up confusion. Without them, no one will know what is considered acceptable behavior.
Everyone will have their own "style" of doing things. Groups without rules are disjointed, prone to conflict and inefficient. One of the first tasks that teams should do is establish ground rules. These can cover how to interact in the group to how to complete tasks efficiently.
Some examples are:. Someone who drives the group towards a common goal. As a company founder or manager, you may be the designated team leader. But, that doesn't mean you should always be the one leading.
Leading a team is tiring. Try to do it all on your own and you'll burn out fast. Sometimes, there may even be another member of the group more qualified to lead a discussion than you. If you are discussing the security of a mobile app you are building, the best facilitator could be the cyber security expert on your team? High-functioning teams work so well together that facilitator roles can rotate without impacting their performance.
If everyone in your group thinks and acts the same, then why do you have a group? The benefit of working in a team is that you have access to diverse experiences, skills, and opinions that aren't possible alone. When members disagree about something, listen to each side. But, don't take one. Search for common ground. For example, each person wants to reach the end goal. When conflicts are resolved, it can improve existing processes and bond members together.
Each person in your group holds some value, otherwise they wouldn't be there, right? Remind your team to listen to each person's insight. Early on, create an environment that is open and non-judgmental. Hold brainstorming sessions. Write down every idea that is offered, no matter how ridiculous it sounds. Some of the greatest entrepreneurs and inventors have had failed companies and ill-conceived ideas.
For every brilliant idea, there are terrible ones. Encouraging your team to share their ideas and opinions is the key to finding the "big ideas".
When you lead a group, part of your responsibility is to observe. Study how the team functions as a unit and individually. What are they doing well?
Anyone can learn for free on OpenLearn, but signing-up will give you access to your personal learning profile and record of achievements that you earn while you study. Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available. How do teams form? Are there any common patterns in the way in which they develop? It turns out that there are.
He later added a fifth stage, Adjourning, in the s. The 'Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing' theory is an elegant and helpful explanation of team development and behaviour. Both of these theories and how they overlap with Tuckman's model will be briefly outlined below. Tuckman's model explains that as the team develops maturity and ability, relationships establish, and the leader changes leadership style.
Formal and informal groups form within organizations for different reasons. Formal groups gather to perform various tasks. Informal groups evolve to gratify a variety of members' needs not met by formal groups.
Still, the positive effects of such an exchange depend strongly on the suitability of the selected peers in a group.
In the Forming stage, personal relations are characterized by dependence. Group members rely on safe, patterned behavior and look to the group leader for.Reply
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The stages of group development come from research by Tuckman and Jenson. A downloadable version of this article is available in PDF format from the.Reply
are five consistent stages of group development: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Most groups progress through these.Reply