File Name: mitochondrial dna structure and function .zip
Mitochondria are the energy producing organelles of the cell, and mutations within their genome can cause numerous and often severe human diseases. At the heart of every mitochondrion is a set of five large multi-protein machines collectively known as the mitochondrial respiratory chain MRC. This cellular machinery is central to several processes important for maintaining homeostasis within cells, including the production of ATP. The MRC is unique due to the bigenomic origin of its interacting proteins, which are encoded in the nucleus and mitochondria. It is this, in combination with the sheer number of protein-protein interactions that occur both within and between the MRC complexes, which makes the prediction of function and pathological outcome from primary sequence mutation data extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate how 3D structural analysis can be employed to predict the functional importance of mutations in mtDNA protein-coding genes.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Moraes and S. Srivastava and I. Kirkinezos and J. Moraes , S.
Mitochondrial DNA is only a small portion of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell; most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. Human mitochondrial DNA was the first significant part of the human genome to be sequenced. Since animal mtDNA evolves faster than nuclear genetic markers,    it represents a mainstay of phylogenetics and evolutionary biology. It also permits an examination of the relatedness of populations, and so has become important in anthropology and biogeography. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. This theory is called the endosymbiotic theory.
It is now clear that molecular defects in human mitochondrial DNA play a significant role in human disease. Mitochondrial DNA mutations range from single base changes in the Independently of the actual cause of a given mutation, it is possible to predict at least some of the consequences of changes in mitochondrial DNA sequence. This paper reviews our overall understanding of the mode and mechanism of mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription and how this relates to mitochondrial gene expression. This provides a background to anticipate the nature and extent of mitochondrial DNA sequence changes that might be of physiological consequence.
I. Mammalian Mitochondrial Genomes. II. The Human mtDNA. III. Structure of the Human mtDNA D-Loop Region. IV. Mitochondrial DNA Replication. V. Initiation.
Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Each cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondria, which are located in the fluid that surrounds the nucleus the cytoplasm. Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus, mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA. Mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes, all of which are essential for normal mitochondrial function.
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Mitochondrion , membrane-bound organelle found in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells cells with clearly defined nuclei , the primary function of which is to generate large quantities of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate ATP.Reply
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