File Name: objective floriculture and landscaping .zip
They can be: flowering or non-flowering with decorative nature. Production and sale of seeds, bulbs, corms, rhizomes, tubers, rooted cuttings 3. Ornamental plant rental service 4.
Plant nursery business and production of tissue culture raised plants 5. Production of flowers for perfumes, essential oils etc. Production of dried flowers and plant parts 7. Landscape and turf grass industry 1. New production centers a Africa e.
Kenya, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Ethiopia etc. Ecuador, Chile, Brazil etc. India, China, Thailand etc. Traditional production centers a. USA b. Japan c. The Netherlands d. Italy e. I love you! Flowers are important features or items in all religious and festive occasions Usually offered by devotees:- In the Mosques, In the Churches Given as:- Birthday presents, Wedding gifts, Funeral occasions 5.
Following the emergence and expansion of the private business, the dawn of horticulture farms also came to Ethiopia. Hence, privately owned horticulture farms started to emerge and most of the farms started producing flowers, vegetables, and fruits for local and international markets.
Among this the floriculture industry, although only a decade old, has shown significant progress in generating high foreign income and creating huge employment opportunity. The Ethiopian Horticulture Development Agency reported that the floriculture sector has generated million USD last fiscal year He said 49, tons of roses and He attributed the increase in foreign currency earnings to consistent government support to the floriculture sector, attractive incentives and increase in export volume.
The country is becoming a preferred investment hub for horticulture to the conducive investment climate and government incentives, Mekonnen said. Most of flowers grown in Ethiopia are exported to Europe. But Ethiopia is currently looking for the opportunity to expand the variety of countries- importers, and has already made attempts to advance floriculture products on markets in Japan, North America and other African countries too.
A lot of different flower species are cultivated, but roses, gypsophila, carnations, chrysanthemums, limonium and hypericum are produced in more amount. The optimum height for flower cultivation is from till meter above sea level. Luckily, Ethiopia has a wide range of height of the land, from meters below sea level up to meter above sea level.
A significant part of the territory of Ethiopia lies within this height range. Besides, the best temperature for flower growing is between 10 and 30 degrees Celsius. As far as the country also has many large areas with these climatic conditions, there is a huge potential for creating different companies and organizations, which would produce even more various sorts of cut flowers.
The other advantages for developing the floriculture business on flower farms in Ethiopia are the fertile soils which are perfect for flower growing. In Ethiopia the cost spent on producing, transportation and work force are less than in many other African countries and, moreover, much less than in European countries, and simultaneously the quality of cut flowers is really high. This is one of the reasons why Ethiopian flower business is more attractive for foreign investors and, consequently, why floriculture in Ethiopia has attained a peak with such a fast tempo and high driving force.
Global floral production value is estimated at USD 55bn. Tree nursery—the production of trees, shrubs and other hardy plants—is worth another USD 35bn. But whereas cut flowers, cut foliage and flower bulbs are traded globally, mainly from south to north, more bulky live plants, such as potted plants and nursery products, are mainly traded regionally.
On the consumption side of the business, the rise of online floriculture sales is definitely one of these trends. Although the US floriculture market is showing signs of recovery, the total global floriculture market is still rather fickle. In Europe, the picture is very varied. The Russian market has been declining, resulting in decreasing and changing cut flower imports. The Netherlands is still a major junction in global cut flower trade, but the four cut flower exporters close to the equator— Colombia, Kenya, Ecuador and Ethiopia—are gathering speed.
Colombia is also steaming ahead and has become a frontrunner in cut-flower sea freight. Looking at the future, predictability will become more difficult. Therefore, companies in the global floriculture market must be prepared for the unexpected.
Floriculture trade going online Potted plants and nursery products are bought through a wider range of retail channels than cut flowers. However, there is one major trend impacting both categories: the rise of online sales. The rising four Equatorial Countries have surpassed the Netherlands Dutch The Dutch share in global cut flower exports has continued to decline since we first published a World Flower Map in As the cut flower production area measures only ha both covered and in the open field , the Netherlands is still a major junction in international floriculture trade.
While roses are the main cut flower traded by these four countries, Colombia has a relatively diversified product range and is also the largest exporter of chrysanthemum and the second largest global exporter of carnations in the world. There is hardly any domestic demand, producers have to deal with a lack of air freight and high transportation costs, volatile exchange rates, and challenging political and social circumstances.
Figure 1: World's largest cut flower exporting countries, versus Sources: UN-Comtrade, Royal FloraHolland, Rabobank, Colombia is the global leader in cut flower exports over sea freight where possible, exporting nations try to move away from expensive and relatively unsustainable air freight.
Colombia is leading global sea freight in cut flowers. Plants are classified based on the similarities of their characters. Plant taxonomists compare flowering patterns, stem and leaf structures, life cycles, genetic similarities, and many other characteristics in deciding which plants are the most closely related. More than one classification system has been proposed for floricultural plants. Here we will use two of the most commonly used classifications.
Annuals Flowering plants in this classification lives only in one growing season and completes its life cycle in that period. The duration of a cycle varies; it may be a few weeks to several months depending on the species. These flowering plants are useful in landscaping. Some popular annual flowering plants are: Zinnia Zinnia elegans , Marigold Tagetes spp. Biennials Plants under this class complete its life cycle in two growing seasons.
The first season, it produces only vegetative growth, during the second season it produce flowers, fruits and ends its growth cycle in the second season. Examples: Sweet William, Hollyhock 3. Perennials They are mostly woody species growing for several years through adverse weather conditions winter, summer, and fall. They continue vegetative growth for long time, flower and fruit in a variable manner and live for a number of years.
They are classified according to the following uses: 1. Cut Flower Cut flowers refer to flowers starting to blossom or flower buds that are cut with stems, branches and leaves to be used for bouquets or decorations.
Typical fresh cut flowers include roses, carnations, orchids, chrysanthemums, lilies, gerbera etc. Potted plants These plants are adapted to indoor conditions and for home and small gardens. They are grown in containers, usually slow growing, and mostly foliage plants, some flowering plants also used as potted plants. Examples are Sansevieria Sansevieria spp. Bedding plants These are annual plants raised for planting outdoors in flower beds.
It starts from sowing seeds indoors in the off-season and transplanted later in the growing season. Examples; includes Petunia Petunia spp. Hanging plants These are hanging basket plants either annual or perennial, flowering or foliage rose in decorative containers and hung by elegant ropes from the ceiling in the patio, in the doorway area, or from decorative plant poles.
Examples are Geranium Pelargonium spp. Dried Flower These are flowers which are used after being dried for different occasions. These flowers are dried using different preservatives. Ex: Statice, Gypsophila, Straw flower Helichrysum 6. Landscape plants Crops which are grown in the garden for beauty and function a Lawn: It is an area of grass grown as a green carpet.
Ground covers can grow in any areas like shady areas and are used to fill bare spots. Vinca minor, Vinca major, Carex spp. Scindapsus aureus Money plant ii. Monstera deliciosa Swiss cheese plant iii. Philodendron scandens iv.
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Floriculture books pdf Acanthaceae annual floriculture books pdf antirrhinum apocynaceae auxins floriculture books pdf bangalore bears beautiful beds bengali blooms blue borders bougainvillea bracts branches buds bulbs bushy carnation chrysanthemum climate climber cm long cm pots cm tall colour common name compost corms creeper cultivars cultivation cultural hints cut flowers dahlia decoration diseases double. Feedback: after reading these icar ecourse, please give your feedback for improve of the e- course contents on this website. Disclaimer: the information on this website does not floriculture books pdf warrant floriculture books pdf or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of the course- ware floriculture books pdf contents. Definition of floriculture [ larson, ] floriculture is a branch of horticulture that deals with the cultivation of flowering plants, decorative foliage plants, cacti, orchids, succulents, bonsai, ferns, plants grown in containers as well as landscape gardening. In many of the recent literature, floriculture is referred as ornamental. Floriculture book summary : floriculture: from greenhouse production floriculture books pdf to floral design is a comprehensive book based on the floriculture industry.
Objective Floriculture and Landscaping book. Read 4 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Floriculture and Landscaping constitute the i.
Being a branch of Horticulture, it deals with the cultivation of flowers and ornamental crops from the time of planting to the time of harvesting. It also includes production of planting materials through seeds, cuttings, budding, grafting, etc, up to the marketing of the flower and flower produce. In Meghalaya, floriculture is mostly practiced as a hobby by flower lovers. However, lately the high cost of planting materials, seeds, cut flowers etc and the increase in their demand, has created an awareness in the grower on the commercial aspects.
Landscape horticulture is a broad category that includes plants for the landscape, including lawn turf but particularly nursery crops such as shrubs, trees, and vines. It presents all the basics and advanced information in their easiest way for the readers thus, especially designed to cover all the aspects of floriculture and landscaping. To compile objective questions and questions requiring short answers on all faces of floriculture and landscaping based on my experience.
December 1, Introduction to Floriculture.