difference between stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric pdf

Difference between stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric pdf

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Non-stoichiometric compound

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Non-stoichiometric compounds are chemical compounds , almost always solid inorganic compounds , having elemental composition whose proportions cannot be represented by a ratio of small natural numbers ; most often, in such materials, some small percentage of atoms are missing or too many atoms are packed into an otherwise perfect lattice work. Contrary to earlier definitions, modern understanding of non-stoichiometric compounds view them as homogeneous, and not mixtures of stoichiometric chemical compounds. Many metal oxides and sulfides have non-stoichiometric examples; for example, stoichiometric iron II oxide, which is rare, has the formula FeO, whereas the more common material is nonstoichiometric, with the formula Fe 0. The type of equilibrium defects in non-stoichiometric compounds can vary with attendant variation in bulk properties of the material. Nonstoichiometry is pervasive for metal oxides , especially when the metal is not in its highest oxidation state.

Non-stoichiometric compound

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. We discuss this problem using results of exact lattice energy calculations.

The thermodynamic redox properties of ceria and ceria zirconia solid solutions are analysed with a new methodology for modelling such systems based on the statistical mechanics of lattice configurations. A dilute species model of defect clusters , obeying the law of mass action, was sufficient to describe the system over the whole range of conditions, leading to a simple analytical equation of state for the system. This offers new physical insight into the redox properties of ceria based materials, and the theoretical methods developed should also be of great interest for other materials which exhibit continuous oxygen non-stoichiometry similar to ceria, such as perovskite oxides. If you are not the author of this article and you wish to reproduce material from it in a third party non-RSC publication you must formally request permission using Copyright Clearance Center. Go to our Instructions for using Copyright Clearance Center page for details. Authors contributing to RSC publications journal articles, books or book chapters do not need to formally request permission to reproduce material contained in this article provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material. If the material has been adapted instead of reproduced from the original RSC publication "Reproduced from" can be substituted with "Adapted from".


The samples of nonstoichiometric nickel oxide are synthesized by thermal Due to difference in the nature of surface and bulk, the defect.


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The metastable dehydration product converts to AH upon storage at the driest conditions or to HyA if exposed to moisture. HyB is a stoichiometric tetrahydrate. The loss of the water molecules causes HyB to collapse to an amorphous phase.

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    PDF | This chapter gives a general overview of synthesis and recent The samples of nonstoichiometric nickel oxide are synthesized by thermal decomposition method. Due to difference in the nature of surface. and bulk.

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