File Name: tropical root and tuber crops production perspectives and future prospects .zip
Cocoyams Taro and Tannia are important food crop in the tropical world. Beyond their food and nutritious values, they have cultural, religious and social meanings which vary within cultures. As with most tropical underutilized crops, cocoyam is affected by biotic and abiotic stresses resulting to low yield.
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Trends in the Use of Roots and Tubers 7 3. Trends in the Supply of Roots and Tubers 14 4. Baseline Projections of Production and Use 23 5. High Demand and Production Growth Scenario 34 6. Roots, Tubers, and the Environment 41 7. Production of, edible energy and protein in, and value of major roots and tubers and cereals in developing countries, —97 2 2. Percentage of calories and protein from consumption of roots and tubers as food, and 3 3.
Food and feed utilization of roots and tubers by region, and 8 4. Per capita consumption of roots and tubers as food and feed, and 9 5. Annual growth rates in area planted with and production of roots and tubers by commodity and region, —96 15 6. Production of roots and tubers by commodity and region, and 15 7. Yields and annual growth rates in yield for roots and tubers, —96 18 8. Total use of roots and tubers in , and projected to , baseline scenario 25 9.
Projected annual growth rates for food, feed, and total use of roots and tubers, —, baseline scenario 25 Projected annual growth rates for food, feed, and total use of wheat, maize, rice, and all cereals, —, baseline scenario 26 Per capita use of roots and tubers and cereals as food in , and projected to , baseline scenario 26 Food and feed use of roots and tubers in , and projected to , baseline scenario 27 Production levels and annual growth rates of production for roots and tubers, —, baseline scenario 30 Area planted and annual growth rates in area planted for roots and tubers, —, baseline scenario 30 Yield and annual growth rates in yields for roots and tubers, —, baseline scenario 31 Estimated world prices for roots and tubers and selected other foods, late s, , and projected to , baseline and HDP scenarios 32 Total use of roots and tubers in , and projections to , HDP scenario 35 Projected annual growth rates in food, feed, and total use of roots and tubers, —, HDP scenario 35 Production levels and annual growth rates of production for roots and tubers, —, HDP scenario 37 Area planted and annual growth rates in area planted for roots and tubers, —, HDP scenario 37 Yields and annual growth rates in yield for roots and tubers, —, HDP scenario 38 Main agronomic characteristics of principal roots and tubers 52 Raw material characteristics of roots and tubers 52 Edible energy produced by major roots and tubers and cereals 3 2.
Production growth rates of major roots and tubers and cereals, developing countries, —63 to —97 5 3. Per capita food and feed consumption of roots and tubers, selected countries and regions, and 9 4a. The relationship between per capita potato consumption and income 10 4b. The relationship between per capita cassava consumption and income 10 4c.
The relationship between per capita sweetpotato consumption and income 11 5. Location of root and tuber production, 16 6. Relative importance of major roots and tubers in countries and regions, , based on production volumes 17 Boxes 1. The Variety of Roots and Tubers 2 2. Hopefully, the analyses in this report, prepared jointly by the International Potato Center CIP and the International Food Policy Research Institute IFPRI , will help give these crops appropriate consideration in future deliberations about the global food system at the national and international levels and thereby improve efforts to ensure access to sufficient food and income for all people.
The assessment of past trends, future prospects, and policy options reported here stems from the tradition of joint studies of roots and tubers in developing countries by the centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research CGIAR. While this report builds on that previous collaboration, it also represents the first intercenter effort to produce future projections of demand and supply for these crops.
The focus of the work also expanded to include cassava and yam. In so doing, this report became the empirical foundation of a broader effort aimed at documenting not just trends and projections but also describing research activities and organizations with the overall objective of providing a vision for research on roots and tubers in the CGIAR. Gregory J.
Scott, Mark W. Rosegrant, and Claudia Ringler have synthesized a significant amount of data and information on roots and tubers in an effort to provide a clearer vision of their past, present, and future roles in the food systems of developing countries. How the production and use of these commodities have changed and will continue to change over time are all the more important to understand because of the contribution they make to the diets and income-generating activities of the rural and urban poor in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
This paper provides a fuller understanding of the prospects of roots and tubers for food, feed, and other uses in developing countries in the decades ahead. In that regard, the authors note that cassava, potato, sweetpotato, and yam will remain important commodities in the coming years, particularly in many of those poorer regions and countries that merit broader international support in their efforts to increase food production, reduce rural pov- erty, and improve food security while protecting the environment.
We owe special appreciation to Rupert Best of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture CIAT for his comments and corrections on the various preliminary versions of this docu- ment and for supplying abundant source material on cassava in developing countries. We particularly wish to thank Luis Maldonado and Victor Suarez for their work on several of the historical statistical tables.
Greg also would like to acknowledge Princess Ferguson for her editorial support in preparing the numerous preliminary drafts of this report and Jo Sears for her help in completing the final version. We are grateful to Roberta Gerpacio and Nicostrato Perez for their work on earlier versions of this report.
They contributed both model runs and written documents. We would also like to thank C. Introduction The world food situation has been the focus of a Individually, cassava, potato, sweetpotato, and flurry of recent publications aimed at providing yam rank among the most important food crops greater insights into the evolution of global food worldwide and, in terms of annual volume of pro- supply, demand, and trade over the next few duction, cassava, potato, and sweetpotato rank decades Alexandratos , , ; Alex- among the top 10 food crops produced in develop- andratos and Bruinsma ; Delgado et al.
Most of this analysis, however, has focused on the past performance and Country Food Systems future prospects for cereals and livestock. In doing so, it seeks to provide a food and nutrition see, for example, Alexandratos clearer vision of the contribution that these crops , — A key objective of this of dietary energy and have stable yields under con- paper is to clarify and, as much as possible, to ditions in which other crops may fail Alexandratos quantify the complexity and magnitude of that , Farmers produced million important source of vitamins, minerals, and essen- metric tons mt of these crops annually, 70 percent tial amino acids such as lysine Low et al.
They ac- Africa, and Latin America, and nearly million count for 20 percent of calories consumed in the mt, almost all of it potatoes, in developed coun- region Table 2. In 31 African countries with an- tries. The remainder was used as animal feed, nual cassava production of more than 10, mt planting material, processed products for example each, annual per capita consumption averaged starch , and other purposes.
Per capita consumption cereals Table 1. At the modities wedged their way into distinct production same time these crops are highly differentiated in terms systems and varied consumption uses. For example, of origin, production and nutritional traits, and use. Foremost among them in terms of aggre- can take 9 to 24 months see Appendix, Table Yam includes some species that have moved drought-like conditions. Conversely, cassava has been from Africa to North and South America, and others that used more often for processed products because, among have traveled from Asia to Africa Hahn et al.
More- arracacha, mashua, oca, and ulluco. South America, and East Asia. Note: Coefficients for calculating edible energy and protein are based on Horton Note: is average for —84 and is average for — Source: Horton and Fano Latin America covers Central and South America and the omic instability, regional population growth rates Caribbean.
Within low-income per year during — Production and use of months, when cereals are in seasonally short sup- sweetpotato is thus more prominent in Sichuan ply in many parts of the country, and often in province, China Gitomer , in eastern India water-scarce areas where irrigated rice cannot be Dayal et al. Similar trends in production growth Cassava is more prominent in northeast 4. In Vietnam serve as food security crops.
They alleviate sea- during —97, roughly 50 percent of the annual sonal shortages and fill food gaps caused by natural cassava harvest of 2 million mt was processed into or man-made disasters see, for example, Tanganik feed and an additional 25 percent was used to make et al.
Farm surveys in processed products for both rural and urban con- Bangladesh Scott a , Egypt Crissman et al. In Africa, cassava, in addition to being a and labor days per hectare per crop, work to- cheap, starchy staple, graduated from on-farm con- tals far greater than those for many other crops.
In sumption to cash crop for sale to both urban and South Asia, jobs in potato production particularly rural consumers Nweke ; Nweke et al. A Asia. Potato production in Asia now accounts for recent study of the potato sector in Bolivia esti- nearly 80 percent of total production in developing mated that the crop generated over 12 million labor countries.
Surveys soared from 7.
Alternative soil management practices like organic farming assume significance in the context of climate change for safe food production. Yams white yam, greater yam and lesser yam and edible aroids elephant foot yam EFY , taro and tannia are tuberous vegetables with good taste and nutritive value. Six field experiments were conducted at the ICAR-Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, India, over a decade — to compare the varietal response, yield, quality and soil properties under organic vs conventional system and develop a learning system. The elite and local varieties of EFY and taro and the three species of yams, including trailing and dwarf genotypes, responded equally well to both the systems. The tuber quality was improved with higher dry matter, starch, crude protein, K, Ca and Mg contents. Physico-chemical and biological properties of soil were favoured and the organic system scored a significantly higher soil quality index.
Characterization of cocoyam Xanthosoma spp. The present study assessed the physical, chemical, functional, and microbiological properties of cocoyam Xanthosoma spp. The flour was initially submitted to a water-soaking process in order to reduce its high oxalate content. The soaked flour showed a high dietary fiber content The anti-nutritional component analysis showed low levels of oxalate 5.
Tropical root and tuber crops: production, perspectives and future prospects . Onwueme, I.C.; FAO, Rome (Italy). Plant Production and Protection Div. eng;.
Tropical root and tuber crops: cassava, sweet potato, yams and aroids. Root and tuber crops are important to agriculture, food security and income for 2. These species produce large quantities of dietary energy and have stable yields under difficult environmental conditions. This second edition of Tropical Root and Tuber Crops is an authoritative treatment of four important root and tuber crops: Tropical root and tuber crops: production, perspectives and future prospects  Onwueme, I.
Tropical root crops - International Development Research Centre. International Society for Tropical Root Crops. Africa Branch, Ibadan NG. Tropical root crops : root crops and the African food crisis; proceedings of the Third.
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