anemia questions and answers pdf

Anemia questions and answers pdf

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Physicians & Services

Anemia in Children

Additional diagnostics

Sickle cell disease SCD is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders. If you have SCD, there is a problem with your hemoglobin.

Physicians & Services

Sickle cell disease SCD is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders. If you have SCD, there is a problem with your hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. With SCD, the hemoglobin forms into stiff rods within the red blood cells. This changes the shape of the red blood cells. The cells are supposed to be disc-shaped, but this changes them into a crescent, or sickle, shape.

The sickle-shaped cells are not flexible and cannot change shape easily. Many of them burst apart as they move through your blood vessels. The sickle cells usually only last 10 to 20 days, instead of the normal 90 to days.

Your body may have trouble making enough new cells to replace the ones that you lost. Because of this, you may not have enough red blood cells.

This is a condition called anemia , and it can make you feel tired. The sickle-shaped cells can also stick to vessel walls, causing a blockage that slows or stops the flow of blood. When this happens, oxygen can't reach nearby tissues. The lack of oxygen can cause attacks of sudden, severe pain, called pain crises. These attacks can occur without warning.

If you get one, you might need to go to the hospital for treatment. The cause of SCD is a defective gene, called a sickle cell gene. People with the disease are born with two sickle cell genes, one from each parent. If you are born with one sickle cell gene, it's called sickle cell trait. People with sickle cell trait are generally healthy, but they can pass the defective gene on to their children.

People with SCD start to have signs of the disease during the first year of life, usually around 5 months of age. Early symptoms of SCD may include. The effects of SCD vary from person to person and can change over time. Most of the signs and symptoms of SCD are related to complications of the disease. They may include severe pain, anemia, organ damage, and infections. A blood test can show if you have SCD or sickle cell trait.

All states now test newborns as part of their screening programs, so treatment can begin early. People who are thinking about having children can have the test to find out how likely it is that their children will have SCD.

Doctors can also diagnose SCD before a baby is born. That test uses a sample of amniotic fluid the liquid in the sac surrounding the baby or tissue taken from the placenta the organ that brings oxygen and nutrients to the baby. The only cure for SCD is bone marrow or stem cell transplantation. Because these transplants are risky and can have serious side effects, they are usually only used in children with severe SCD. For the transplant to work, the bone marrow must be a close match.

Usually, the best donor is a brother or sister. To stay as healthy as possible, make sure that you get regular medical care, live a healthy lifestyle, and avoid situations that may set off a pain crisis. Resources Find an Expert. What is sickle cell disease SCD? What causes sickle cell disease SCD? Who is at risk for sickle cell disease SCD?

What are the symptoms of sickle cell disease SCD? Early symptoms of SCD may include Painful swelling of the hands and feet Fatigue or fussiness from anemia A yellowish color of the skin jaundice or the whites of the eyes icterus The effects of SCD vary from person to person and can change over time. How is sickle cell disease SCD diagnosed? What are the treatments for sickle cell disease SCD? There are treatments that can help relieve symptoms, lessen complications, and prolong life: Antibiotics to try to prevent infections in younger children Pain relievers for acute or chronic pain Hydroxyurea, a medicine that has been shown to reduce or prevent several SCD complications.

It increases the amount of fetal hemoglobin in the blood. This medicine is not right for everyone; talk to your health care provider about whether you should take it.

This medicine is not safe during pregnancy. Childhood vaccinations to prevent infections Blood transfusions for severe anemia. If you have had some serious complications, such as a stroke , you may have transfusions to prevent more complications. There are other treatments for specific complications. Start Here. Diagnosis and Tests. Treatments and Therapies. Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant? Living With. Related Issues. Health Check Tools. Videos and Tutorials.

What Is Sickle Cell Disease? Statistics and Research. Clinical Trials. Article: Without Sanctuary. Article: Child With Leg Pain. Sickle Cell Disease -- see more articles. Find an Expert. Patient Handouts.

Anemia in Children

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. Accessed June 12, Major causes of vitamin B 12 deficiency Inadequate dietary intake Decreased absorption Pernicious anemia: Deficiency of intrinsic factor can cause decreased absorption of vitamin B 12 Chronic gastritis due to Helicobacter pylori infection Inadequate utilization.

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Nutritional-deficiency anemia is a common issue that can happen if the body does not absorb enough of certain nutrients. It can result from an imbalanced diet or certain health conditions or treatments. Nutritional deficiencies can lead to a low red blood cell count, low levels of hemoglobin in these cells, or red blood cells that do not function as they should. Anemia is a term for these issues. Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common type, but low levels of folate or vitamin B can also cause the condition, and a low vitamin C intake can contribute to it.

Written and peer-reviewed by physicians—but use at your own risk. Read our disclaimer. Anemia is defined as a decrease in the quantity of circulating red blood cells RBC , represented by a reduction in hemoglobin concentration Hb , hematocrit Hct , or RBC count. The most common cause is iron deficiency. Clinical features, if present, are mostly nonspecific and may include fatigue, dyspnea , conjunctival pallor , and tachycardia.

Print Friendly, PDF & Email Common anaemia exam questions for doctors and medical students What are the common causes of a microcytic anaemia?

Additional diagnostics

Iron-deficiency anemia is anemia caused by a lack of iron. Iron-deficiency anemia is caused by blood loss , insufficient dietary intake, or poor absorption of iron from food. Iron deficiency anemia can be prevented by eating a diet containing sufficient amounts of iron or by iron supplementation.

Have you ever been told that an older relative has anemia? And anemia becomes even more common as people get older. Misunderstanding anemia can also lead to unnecessary worrying, or perhaps even inappropriate treatment with iron supplements.

Anemia is a condition that affects the number of red blood cells in your body. A number of diseases and conditions can cause anemia. Find out more by taking the following quiz. Search Encyclopedia.

Interactive Tools

 Тебе больше нечем заняться? - Сьюзан метнула на него недовольный взгляд. - Хочешь от меня избавиться? - надулся Хейл. - Если честно - да, - Не надо так, Сью, Ты меня оскорбляешь. Глаза Сьюзан сузились. Она терпеть не могла, когда он называл ее Сью. Вообще-то она ничего не имела против этого имени, но Хейл был единственным, кто его использовал, и это было ей неприятно.

Джабба открыл рот, готовый что-то сказать, но тут его буквально парализовал душераздирающий крик. Все повернули головы к Сьюзан Флетчер, которая выпрямилась и поднялась со стула. Лицо ее побелело, глаза не отрываясь смотрели на застывший кадр, демонстрировавший неподвижное тело Дэвида Беккера, залитое кровью, брошенное на пол мини-автобуса. - Вы его убили! - крикнула.  - Вы его убили! - Она бросилась к экрану, протянула к нему руки.

Коммандер относился к этой программе с религиозным трепетом, но использовал ее не в политических целях: она служила ему для расчета времени, оценки информации и схематического отображения ситуации, выработки сложных стратегических решений и своевременного выявления слабых мест. Сьюзан не оставляло подозрение, что в компьютере шефа кроется нечто, чему в один прекрасный день суждено изменить весь мир. Да, я была с ним слишком сурова, - подумала Сьюзан. Ее мысли были прерваны внезапным звуковым сигналом входной двери Третьего узла. Стратмор чуть ли не вбежал в комнату. - Сьюзан, - сказал он, - только что позвонил Дэвид. Он задерживается.


  • Huette D. 14.04.2021 at 00:31

    MedPage Today has been reporting on a variety of subjects relating to iron deficiency anemia, including the prevalence and causes of anemia.

  • Unawhyxy1996 14.04.2021 at 19:07

    A small quiz may give some answers. Q1. Which of the following is NOT a cause of microcytic anemia? a. Thalassemia b. Anemia of chronic disease c.

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  • Erin P. 19.04.2021 at 07:20

    Anemia is the most common blood disorder, and according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, it affects more than 3 million Americans.

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