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Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Bary Wilson. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Wilson, Cherylyn W. Wright, James E. Morris, Raymond L. Buschbom, Donald P. Brown, Douglas L. A study was carried out to determine possible effects of Hz electromagnetic-field exposure on pineal gland function in humans. Overnight excretion of urinary 6- hydroxymelatonin sulfate 6-OHMS , a stable urinary metabolite of the pineal hor- mone melatonin, was used to assess pineal gland function in 42 volunteers who used standard conventional or modified continuous polymer wire CPW electric blan- kets for approximately 8 weeks.
Volunteers using conventional electric blankets showed no variations in 6-OHMSexcretion as either a group or individuals during the study period. Serving as their own controls, 7 of 28 volunteers using the CPW blankets showed statistically significant changes in their mean nighttime 6-OHMS excretion. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesize that periodic exposure to pulsed DC or extremely low frequency electric o r magnetic fields of sufficient intensity and duration can affect pineal gland function in certain in- dividuals.
Much of our work has been directed toward understanding the association between ELF electric- and Received April 24, ; accepted August 23, Address reprint requests to Dr. Bary W. ELF Fields magnetic-field exposure and alterations in pineal gland circadian rhythms [Wil- Indeed, an accumulating bod son et al. Melatonin concentrations normally increase during the hours of suppressed by weak ELF magnetb darkness in both the pineal gland and circulating blood.
Maximum melatonin marked changes in pineal seroton concentrations occur between approximately and h in humans. In all intermittent magnetic fields at nig mammals, the internal clock that helps generate this pineal circadian rhythm consequence of daytime exposurr resides in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. The pineal is richly innervated by fibers Hz electric or magnetic fields c of the superior cervical ganglia SCG [Moore et al.
However, we know We have completed a study Light of sufficient intensity is effective in suppressing melatonin synthesis magnetic-field exposure from usin in many animals [Wurtman et al. Lewy et al. Use of light level required for suppression in humans is approximately 2, lux. It sure to ELF fields that normally oc appears that the pineal gland of certain sensitive individuals, however, may Exposure t o electric blankets, as u: respond to light levels as low as lux [Mclntyre et al.
Ingested the normal lifestyle or daily routir alcohol [Wetterberg, , P-adrenergic receptor-blocking drugs such as pro- in pineal melatonin secretion, wc r. In the circulation, melatonin acts to suppress the function of several other I Exposure Systems endocrine glands, including the gonads. Melatonin also suppresses the growth of 1 Both conventional electric b certain cancers in both in vitro and in vivo models [Blask, The 1 two parallel conductors separated cancers [Sanchez Barcelo et a].
Stevens [ proposed that, should there be increased cancer risk I to temperature at any point along from ELF electromagnetic-field exposure, such risk may be a consequence of i for the thermal safety switches us altered pineal gland function. Our o [Wilson et a]. In day-old rats maintained in a Hz electric blankets should have little or no field for 20 Wday from conception, there was no difference among the pineal studies were completed, however.
Within 3 days after cessation of ELF electric-field exposure, how- the bed. AC and DC power supp ever, strong pineal melatonin rhythms were reestablished. This effect appeared appearance or weight, and both t t! Indeed, an accumulating body of data suggests that ELF electric- and netic-field exposure can affect circadian rhythms and pineal function in 1.
Lerchl et al. In all intermittent magnetic fields at night, but no such changes were observe elps generate this pineal circadian rhythm consequence of daytime exposure.
Wever [I reported that expos :i. The pineal is richly innervated by fibers HZelectric or magnetic fields can act as a "zeitgeber," arresting the 1. G [Moore et al.
However, we know of no direct experimental evidence th s acts via the SCG as the principal regulator electromagnetic-field exposure can affect human pineal gland function. We have completed a study to determine if domestic ELF electri effective in suppressing melatonh synthesis magnetic-field exposure from using electric blankets could affect pineal , Use of electric blankets represents a periodic I in humans is approximately 2, lux.
It sure to ELF fields that normally occurs at night when the pineal is most :ertain sensitive individuals, however, may Exposure to electric blankets, as used in this study, did not require alter2 lux [Mclntyre et al.
Ingested the normal lifestyle or daily routine of the subjects. TOassess possible c nergic receptor-blocking drugs such as pro- in pineal melatonin secretion, we determined overnight urinary 6-h :ertain kinds of stress [Troiani et al.
Melatonin also suppresses the growth of Both conventional electric blankets and continuous polymer wire 3. Reduction in electric blankets were used. The heating element of CPW blankets col ziahd with estrogen receptor-positive breast two parallel conductors separated by a resistive polymer material. Curre and prostate adenocarcinoma [Buzzell et ing between the two conductors through the polymer is inversely prop d that, should there be increased cancer risk to temperature at any point along the element.
This feature eliminates t Lposure, such risk may be a consequence of for the thermal safety switches used in conventional electric blankets ; vides some degree of auto temperature control. DC magnetic fields can indeed affect pineal gland function in rats.
This arcing const :of the nighttime melatonin peak [Reiter et al. AC and DC power supply boxes could not be distinguishec thms were reestablished. ELF Fields ar Table 1. When both husband and wife were week, and processed in the lab w i u participating in the study, a larger power supply was used to accommodate the were measured and recorded; thre individual temperature controllers for both sides of the bed. Subjects were not taken, one for analysis by RIA, one f informed as to whether their blankets were powered by AC or DC at any given held for archival purposes.
In total, IT time. Nonfunctional sham power supply boxes were provided for use with the collected and analyzed by RIA. Level conventionally wired blankets. Cretainine normalization yield I. Male and female participants were for further statistical analyses. Each of the groups provided early evening and morning urine samples for 2 weeks period 1-preexposure before begin- I Assay for Urinary 6-Hydroxymelat ning exposure.
After ' tion of that described by Arendt [I9 4 t o 5 weeks of exposure, power modes on the blankets for groups 1 and 2 were! Urine samples were also collected from all three groups fective working range for the assay for 2 weeks period 4 after cessation of exposure. Within-assay v Because of the anticipated large variation in melatonin excretion among 9.
Daytil control. The study population was selected from residents of southeastern l and nighttime urines betwee Washington State, a region centered around 46O15' N latitude. At this latitude, winter solstice sunrise was at h and sunset at h. To control for Statistical Analysis possible changes in melatonin secretion arising from differences in the hours of daylight [Bojkowski and Arendt, , study periods 1 and 2 were contiguous Results of daytime and nightti and ended just before the winter solstice.
Periods 3 and 4 were contiguous and for each subject and for the threl began just after the winter solstice. Because of the time required to change statistical analyses were performed blanket power modes, there was essentially no break in exposure between for each group were analyzed separ periods 2 and 3.
The sample I Power Modes and by collection method did not allow gathering of information on possible temporal - shifts in the melatonin peak that might occur in the time span between the last urine voiding before retiring and the first morning urination. Samples 6. Volunteers Jrn blanket surface. Samples were refriger- ated by the volunteers immediately after collection, picked up three times per both husband and wife were week, and processed in the lab within a few hours of pickup.
Total urine volumes was used to accommodate the were measured and recorded; three sets of aliquots 5 ml each were then of the bed.
Subjects were not taken, one for analysis by RIA, one for creatinine determination, and one to be :red by AC or DC at any given held for archival purposes. In total, more than 2, primary urine samples were vere provided for use with the collected and analyzed by RIA. Levels of 6-OHMSwere normalized to creatinine content and to urinary volume and time.
Excreted melatonin levels were thus expressed as nanograms of 6-OHMSper milliliters urinehour, or as nanograms of 6-OHMS per milligram of creatinine; the measures were essentially equiva- 32 healthy, nonpregnant, pre- lent. Cretainine normalization yielded lower variance and was therefore used and female participants were for further statistical analyses. The assay is a modifica- :ets in the same manner. The iodinated material ,nL to 5 weeks period 3.
The ef- ollected from all three groups fective working range for the assay linear portion of the curve was between re. Within-assay variance among triplicate samples averaged 1 melatonin excretion among 9.
Samples were run in triplicate at two rteers would act as their own or three different dilutions. Daytime urines were diluted between l and ,m residents of southeastern l and nighttime urines between l and l. At this latitude, et at h. To control for Statistical Analysis 3m differences in the hours of iods 1 and 2 were contiguous Results of daytime and nighttime 6-OHMS measurements were compiled 3 and 4 were contiguous and for each subject and for the three groups of subjects during the study.
All the time required to change statistical analyses were performed on overnight 6-OHMS measurements.
Title page of a dissertation on sleep written by Thomas Ball, an 18th century American physician. This fascinating work contains comments on such subjects as the effectiveness of hypnotics and causes of excessive sleepiness. Wallace B. Mendelson, J. Bibliography: p. Includes index. Sleep disorders.
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Knowledge of display rules in prelingually deaf and hearing children. Deaf children of elementary and secondary school age participated in a study designed to examine their understanding of display rules, the principles governing the expression and concealment of emotion in social situations. The results showed that deaf children 's knowledge of display rules, as measured by their reported concealment of emotion, was comparable to that of hearing children of the same age. However, deaf children were less likely to report that they would conceal happiness and anger.
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