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Access options available:. By Virginia Held. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Virginia Held's latest work, The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global , is another important contribution to the ongoing reconstruction and strengthening of care ethics in the face of continuous criticism, especially from liberal Kantian theorists in both the feminist and non-feminist communities. In Held's book what is of interest to the community of Asian and comparative philosophy is, first, that the struggle of feminist theories in comparison with established canons is reflective of the struggle of Asian and comparative philosophy in finding ways to fit into the mainstream philosophical Western discourse; and, second, that Held's advocacy of care ethics is reminiscent of the Confucian ren. However, Held is not particularly aware of the first resemblance and rather boldly dismisses the second in her brief reflection on the merits of Confucianism pp. Despite shortcomings in her attempt to extend the field of feminist discourse beyond the canonic Western traditions, Held's latest reconstruction of care ethics clears new ground for a fruitful dialogue between the feminist and non-feminist communities concerning the ideal way of being in the world, which takes caring relations at home as paradigmatic of one's moral thinking.
The ethics of care alternatively care ethics or EoC is a normative ethical theory that holds that moral action centers on interpersonal relationships and care or benevolence as a virtue. EoC is one of a cluster of normative ethical theories that were developed by feminists in the second half of the twentieth century. The distinction between the general and the individual is reflected in their different moral questions: "what is just? Gilligan was a student of developmental psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg. Gilligan developed EoC in contrast to her mentor's theory of stages of moral development.
Reviewed by: The ethics of care: Personal, political, and global Mary Mahowald bio The ethics of care: Personal, political, and global , by Virginia Held. New York: Oxford University Press, Different interpretations of Kantian and utilitarian theory have long dominated philosophical discussions of ethics. Virtue theory, revived and revised from its ancient roots in Aristotle, also has joined these discussions. Feminist contributions to ethics have been associated with the early work of Sara Ruddick, Nel Noddings, and Carol Gilligan, each of whom emphasizes caring relationships to particular [End Page ] others as essential to moral behavior. Some feminists have voiced concern that this emphasis supports the exploitative, stereotypic practices toward women that have prevailed throughout history; other feminists claim that a critique of these practices is consistent with their endorsement of an ethics of care.
Since oppression often involves ignoring the perspectives of the marginalized, different approaches to feminist ethics have in common a commitment to better understand the experiences of persons oppressed in gendered ways. That commitment results in a tendency, in feminist ethics, to take into account empirical information and material actualities. Not all feminist ethicists correct all of 1 through 3. Some have assumed or upheld the gender binary Wollstonecraft ; Firestone They criticize and aim to correct the privileging of men as the more morally worthy half of the binary, or argue against the maintenance of a social order that oppresses others in gendered ways.
The best example of this may be seen in how ethics of care differs from two dominant normative moral theories of the 18 th and 19 th century. The first is deontology , best associated with Immanuel Kant. They each require the moral agent to be unemotional. Moral decision making is thus expected to be rational and logical, with a focus on universal, objective rules. In contrast, ethics of care defends some emotions, such as care or compassion, as moral.
the-ethics-of-care-personal-political-and-global. 3/ Downloaded from www.stpetersnt.org on. March 9, by guest. The Ethics of Care-Virginia Held .
The book presents the ethics of care as a promising alternative to more familiar moral theories. The ethics of care is only a few decades old, yet it has become a distinct moral theory or normative approach, relevant to global and political matters as well as to the personal relations that can most clearly exemplify care. The book examines the central ideas, characteristics, and potential importance of the ethics of care. It discusses the feminist roots of this moral approach and why the ethics of care can be a morality with universal appeal. Where such other moral theories as Kantian morality and utilitarianism demand impartiality above all, the ethics of care understands the moral import of ties to families and groups.
Normatively, care ethics seeks to maintain relationships by contextualizing and promoting the well-being of care-givers and care-receivers in a network of social relations. It builds on the motivation to care for those who are dependent and vulnerable, and it is inspired by both memories of being cared for and the idealizations of self. Following in the sentimentalist tradition of moral theory, care ethics affirms the importance of caring motivation, emotion and the body in moral deliberation, as well as reasoning from particulars. Critics fault care ethics with being a kind of slave morality, and as having serious shortcomings including essentialism, parochialism, and ambiguity.
Crises ranging from organizational wrongdoings to natural disasters cause destruction and even deaths. Communication is crucial for reducing harm and protecting public interest. This work forms foundations for ethical public interest communications PIC based organizational communications throughout the crisis lifecycle and across contexts. The AMCC presents cross-cutting care considerations i. An, S. Crisis communication research in public relations journals: Tracking research trends over thirty years.
Скажи, что это. - Ни за что на свете. - Он засмеялся. - Супружеская пара без секретов - это очень скучно. Сьюзан застенчиво улыбнулась. - Если будет еще интереснее, чем этой ночью, я не смогу встать.
Infectious disease pandemics raise significant and novel ethical challenges to the organization and practice of public health.Reply
Held, Virginia. The ethics of care: personal, political, and global / Virginia Held. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBNReply
The ethics of care: personal, political, and global / Virginia Held. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBNReply