the urbanization process and economic growth the so what question pdf

The urbanization process and economic growth the so what question pdf

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Learning Outcomes for Study Session 5

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Learning Outcomes for Study Session 5

The relationship between urbanization and economic growth has been perplexing. In this paper, we identify the pattern of global change and the correlation of urbanization and economic growth, using cross-sectional, panel estimation and geographic information systems GIS methods. The analysis has been carried out on a global geographical scale, while the timescale of the study spans the last 30 years. The data shows that urbanization levels have changed substantially during these three decades. Empirical findings from cross-sectional data and panel data support the general notion of close links between urbanization levels and GDP per capita. However, we also present significant evidence that there is no correlation between urbanization speed and economic growth rate at the global level. Hence, we conclude that a given country cannot obtain the expected economic benefits from accelerated urbanization, especially if it takes the form of government-led urbanization.

However, urban settings are a relatively new phenomenon in human history. This transition has transformed the way we live, work, travel and build networks. This entry presents an overview of urbanization across the world, extending from the distant past, to present, and projections of future trends. For most of human history, most people across the world lived in small communities. Over the past few centuries — and particularly in recent decades — this has shifted dramatically. There has been a mass migration of populations from rural to urban areas.

There is an extensive literature on the urbanization process looking at both urbanization and urban concentration, asking whether and when there is under or over-urbanization or under or over urban concentration. Writers argue that national government policies and non-democratic institutions promote excessive concentration—the extent to which the urban population of a country is concentrated in one or two major metropolitan areas—except in former planned economies where migration restrictions are enforced. This paper shows that 1 there is a best degree of urban concentration, in terms of maximizing productivity growth 2 that best degree varies with the level of development and country size, and 3 over or under-concentration can be very costly in terms of productivity growth. The paper shows also that productivity growth is not strongly affected by urbanization per se. Rapid urbanization has often occurred in the face of low or negative economic growth over some decades.

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Urbanization is transforming the world. According to the Drivers of Migration and Urbanization in Africa report by the United Nations, more than half of the global population now lives in urban areas. This figure is projected to increase to 75 percent by , at a growing rate of 65 million urban dwellers annually. Urban areas currently contain million people, and will double over the next 25 years. The global share of African urban residents is projected to grow from Urban centers play a critical role in fighting poverty and sustaining economic growth, and are often considered the future of prosperity in the developing world.

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In this study session, you will learn about the trends in urbanisation and the causes of urban growth. You will also learn about the demographic, health, environmental and social consequences of urbanisation. In Study Session 2 you learned about the overall trend in global population growth. Most of this increase is taking place in urban areas. Urbanisation is an increase in the number of people living in towns and cities.

The Urbanization Process and Economic Growth: The So-What Question

The question is based on the theme of urbanization and its impact on socio-economic growth. The answer must discuss in detail the effect of urbanization as an agent of socio-economic growth. Discuss — This is an all-encompassing directive — you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them.


  • AgnГЁs C. 17.05.2021 at 06:49

    The key question is why urban concentration affects productivity growth. Losses from excessive or deficient primacy in static urban models come.

  • Magdethewas 19.05.2021 at 19:49

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  • Villette G. 20.05.2021 at 15:01

    The Urbanization Process and Economic Growth: The So-What Question level of urbanization or an optimal level of urban concentration, but no research to.

  • Tranciptephe1986 21.05.2021 at 05:04

    Request Full-text Paper PDF Urbanization, Gender and Economic Growth in the Waemu Zone: Evidence from Pooled On the one hand, there is the question of which distribution of city size is optimal for a given country.

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