File Name: india foreign policy retrospect and prospect by sumit ganguly .zip
It is organized primarily in the form of India's relations with its neighbours and with key states in the global order. All the chapters in this volume utilize the level of analysis approach, a well-established conceptual scheme in the study of international politics in organizing the substantive cases. They provide crisp and lucid accounts of its developments in various parts of the world.
The History of Indian foreign policy refers to the foreign relations of modern India post-independence, that is the Dominion of India from to and the Republic of India from onwards. At first, it was vague and rather grandiose dream of forging an international coalition of non-colonial and the colonized powers, but the world was rapidly bifurcated by the emergence of the Cold War between the West, led by the United States and Britain, and the East, led by the Soviet Union.
It was urgent to develop policies regarding the Cold War, as well as relations with Pakistan, Britain, and the Commonwealth. The rest could wait. Nehru and the Congress looked on the Soviet Union with distrust, reassuring the West that there was not the least chance of India lining up with the Soviet Union in war or peace. He took the lead in the non-aligned movement. Nehru kept India's membership in the British Commonwealth, despite the widespread distrust of Britain across his Congress party.
Popular grievances included the British UN delegation openly supported Pakistan on the Kashmir issue, Britain providing military advice to Pakistan, and London supporting the Dutch efforts to crush Indonesian nationalism. At that time the Commonwealth was little more than a debating society, but one objective was to use it as a sounding board for Third World interests. Non-membership would leave Pakistan in a stronger position.
Another factor was the clear need for American help in terms of aid, loans, and trade. Nehru did not want to be too indebted to the Americans, and in that sense, the British and Commonwealth connection would be something of a counterweight. He did insist that the symbolic importance of the King be strictly limited, so there was no sense whatever of royal sovereignty in India. The Soviet Union was angry at India's hostility, and with the Kremlin control of the Indian Communist Party stirred up repeated attacks in Parliament and in media.
Nehru set out to establish a conference of the states bordering the Indian Ocean, from Egypt and Ethiopia to the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand. It was an ambitious plan and gave Nehru the opportunity to give advice to the recently decolonized governments in the region, especially Burma and Ceylon.
The Indian efforts were plotted in the United States, but let nowhere. At the United Nations, the Soviets supported Pakistan and there was a move to demand arbitration or a plebiscite, but India steadfastly repudiated the notions. Nehru insisted that Indian troops would not be withdrawn from Kashmir.
With favorable publicity in America, Nehru and Menon discussed whether India should "align with the United States 'somewhat' and build up our economic and military strength. The Truman administration was quite favorable and indicated it would give Nehru anything he asked for. He proudly refused to beg and thereby forfeited the chance for a gift of a million tons of wheat. The American Secretary of State Dean Acheson recognized Nehru's potential world role but added that he was "one of the most difficult men with whom I have ever had to deal.
Nehru was especially annoyed that Moscow had adopted a negative and destructive approach to South East Asia, apparently trying to destabilize the region. Informally, Nehru made it clear that it would help defend Nepal and South East Asia against any communist aggression. Nehru dramatically changed course in This position greatly pleased Moscow and Beijing but distressed Washington. In he refused to participate in the Japanese peace treaty, considering it an American imperialistic venturer to seize control of Japanese policies.
The net result was that India gained prestige in the Third World, and set the stage for a close relationship with the Soviet Union. This set the stage for an American transition to favor Pakistan strongly over India. Nehru developed from Buddhist thought the Panchsheel also known as the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence , which would be included in future agreements.
Nehru based India's foreign policy on these five principles, as articulated in . He did not mention a fierce determination to retain control of the Kashmir, a goal that would soon emerge. The stated aims of the foreign policy of the Indira Gandhi premiership between and include a focus on security, by fighting militants abroad and strengthening border defenses.
In early , disputed elections in Pakistan led East Pakistan to declare independence as Bangladesh. Repression and violence by the Pakistani army led 10 million refugees to cross border in to India over the coming months. India emerged victorious in the resulting conflict to become the dominant power of South Asia. President Richard Nixon disliked Gandhi personally. Relations with the U. The latter grew to become India's largest trading partner and its biggest arms supplier.
After collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War in , India no longer had to deal with its nonaligned position in the Cold War. Diplomat Shivshankar Menon identified six major policy decisions. Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events. Relations between the two states have been defined by the violent partition of British India in which started the Kashmir conflict , and the numerous military conflicts fought between the two nations.
Consequently, their relationship has been plagued by hostility and suspicion. Northern India and Pakistan somewhat overlap in areas of certain demographics and shared lingua francas mainly Punjabi , Sindhi and Hindustani. After the dissolution of the British Raj in , two new sovereign nations were formed—the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. The subsequent partition of the former British India displaced up to Soon after their independence, India and Pakistan established diplomatic relations but the violent partition and numerous territorial claims would overshadow their relationship.
Since their Independence, the two countries have fought three major wars , one undeclared war and have been involved in numerous armed skirmishes and military standoffs. The Kashmir conflict is the main centre-point of all of these conflicts with the exception of the Indo-Pakistan War of and Bangladesh Liberation War , which resulted in the secession of East Pakistan now Bangladesh.
There have been numerous attempts to improve the relationship—notably, the Shimla summit , the Agra summit and the Lahore summit.
Since the early s, relations between the two nations soured particularly after the Siachen conflict , the intensification of Kashmir insurgency in , Indian and Pakistani nuclear tests in and the Kargil war. Certain confidence-building measures — such as the ceasefire agreement and the Delhi—Lahore Bus service — were successful in de-escalating tensions. However, these efforts have been impeded by periodic terrorist attacks. The Indian Parliament attack almost brought the two nations to the brink of a nuclear war.
The Samjhauta Express bombings , which killed 68 civilians most of whom were Pakistani , was also a crucial point in relations. Additionally, the Mumbai attacks carried out by Pakistani militants  resulted in a severe blow to the ongoing India-Pakistan peace talks.
After a brief thaw following the election of new governments in both nations, bilateral discussions again stalled after the Pathankot attack. India's claim that the attack had been orchestrated by a Pakistan-supported jihadist group was denied by Pakistan, which claimed the attack had been a local reaction to unrest in the region due to excessive force by Indian security personnel.
The attack sparked a military confrontation across the Line of Control, with an escalation in ceasefire violations and further militant attacks on Indian security forces. Since , the ongoing confrontation, continued terrorist attacks and an increase in nationalist rhetoric on both sides has resulted in the collapse of bilateral relations, with little expectation they will recover. Since the election of new governments in both India and Pakistan in the early s, some attempts have been made to improve relations, in particular developing a consensus on the agreement of Non-Discriminatory Market Access on Reciprocal Basis NDMARB status for each other, which will liberalize trade.
Pakistan used to host a pavilion at the annual India International Trade Fair which drew huge crowds. In August , following the approval of the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill in the Indian Parliament , which revoked the special status of Jammu and Kashmir ,   further tension was brought between the two countries, with Pakistan downgrading their diplomatic ties, closing its airspace and suspending bilateral trade with India.
Main Article: Non-aligned Movement. Further Information: non aligned. Nehru was the leader of the Non aligned movement. It was the largest movement outside of the United Nations. After the collapse of the USSR the movement lost its relevance. The long-standing close relationship abruptly ended with the collapse of the Soviet Union in December The steep decline ended by the mids with the new partnership organized by the Russian leader Vladimir Putin.
In the 21st century, the goals of Russian foreign policy include the expansion of economic cooperation, weapon and technology transfer, and cultural exchange. Paul, Thazha V. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Foreign policy of the Indira Gandhi premiership.
Further information: India—Pakistan relations. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. October Main article: India—Russia relations. Main article: India—United States relations. Main article: China—India relations. Volume Two Choudhury, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and the major powers: politics of a divided subcontinent pp SAGE Journals.
Retrieved 4 April New York: W. A History of India. BBC News 29 June Retrieved on 18 June Soviet Policy towards South Asia since Cambridge University Press. Brookings Institution Press. Raja Mohan, "Soft borders and cooperative frontiers: India's changing territorial diplomacy towards Pakistan and China. World and Its Peoples. Marshall Cavendish. Indian Express. New Delhi.
The History of Indian foreign policy refers to the foreign relations of modern India post-independence, that is the Dominion of India from to and the Republic of India from onwards. At first, it was vague and rather grandiose dream of forging an international coalition of non-colonial and the colonized powers, but the world was rapidly bifurcated by the emergence of the Cold War between the West, led by the United States and Britain, and the East, led by the Soviet Union. It was urgent to develop policies regarding the Cold War, as well as relations with Pakistan, Britain, and the Commonwealth. The rest could wait. Nehru and the Congress looked on the Soviet Union with distrust, reassuring the West that there was not the least chance of India lining up with the Soviet Union in war or peace. He took the lead in the non-aligned movement. Nehru kept India's membership in the British Commonwealth, despite the widespread distrust of Britain across his Congress party.
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"India's Foreign Policy: Retrospect and Prospect” by Sumit Ganguly (ed.) Article Sidebar. PDF. Palavras-chave: Índia, Política Externa Índia, Política Externa.
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Ganguly has captured the crux of Indian foreign policies, from the period of to the present day. The book includes incisive essays on this very subject.
In Chapter 1, Ganguly argues that systemic e. It is this concept of three levels that structures the chapters in the book, helping the reader to navigate through often unwieldy and often unfamiliar issues. In Chapter 2, Basrur analyzes India-Pakistan relations, arguing that domestic politics pose the major obstacles to finding a lasting resolution. The chapter is full of important details -e.
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Don't have an account? Shared geography and history have rendered relations between India and Bangladesh mutually crucial, despite structural asymmetry and periods of deep mistrust. Chronicling the Indian view of this relationship, the article outlines the major irritants in contemporary times including water, boundaries, migration, religious extremism, terrorism, transit, and economic issues. The chapter highlights the relatively minor role of the international system, how personalities and domestic politics have prevented agreements on common issues of concern, and the role of coalition politics in India have created parameters within which bilateral relations have moved. Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
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India's Foreign Policy: Retrospect and Prospect. Sumit Ganguly. This paper will provide a survey of India's foreign policy since to the present day.Reply