portugal in european and world history pdf

Portugal in european and world history pdf

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Archive of previous issues

European expansion before 1763

Antecedents of European expansion

Portugal in European and World History

Archive of previous issues

Access to commodities such as fabrics, spices, and gold motivated a European quest for a faster means to reach South Asia. Due to several technological and cultural advantages, Portugal dominated world trade for nearly years, from the fifteenth to the sixteenth century. While in the fifteenth century the rest of Europe was decimated by the Black Plague, Portugal was protected by its physical isolation. Additionally, Portugal had an unusually strong national identity, due to its natural geographic borders, allowing the pooling of the considerable economic resources necessary to fund these ambitious explorations. As a consequence, most of the West African coast was explored in the period from into the s.

Enlarge Image. Portugal is a country that has sometimes been dismissed as small and relatively unimportant. Portugal in European and World History , however, demonstrates that the contrary is true, showing that Portugal has been crucial to the development of Europe and the modern world. Spanning many centuries, from early Moorish times to the Atlantic Empire; the English Alliance of - ; African colonies; the Salazar regime; and the country's liberal revolution in , Malyn Newitt offers a fresh appraisal of Portuguese history and its role in the world. The author examines episodes where Portugal was a key player or innovator, linking its history to a broader context. Chapters focus on such topics as Moorish Portugal, describing the cultural impact of contact with the Moors; the discovery of Brazil and opening up of trade with western Africa; and the explorations of Vasco de Gama and the evolution of Portugal as the first commercial empire of modern times.

The history of Portugal can be traced from circa , years ago, when the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Homo heidelbergensis. The oldest human fossil is the skull discovered in the Cave of Aroeira in Almonda. Later Neanderthals roamed the northern Iberian peninsula. Homo sapiens arrived in Portugal around 35, years ago. Pre-Celtic tribes such as Lusitanians , Turduli and Oestriminis lived in the centre and north. In the south the Cynetes lived in the Algarve and Lower Alentejo regions before the 6th century BC, developed the city of Tartessos and the written Tartessian language , and left many stelae in the south of the country.

European expansion before 1763

This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! Portugal in European and world history. Portugal — History. Portugal — Foreign relations.

It is the westernmost sovereign state in mainland Europe , being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira , both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The official and national language is Portuguese. Portugal is the oldest nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe , its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. It was inhabited by pre-Celtic and Celtic peoples, visited by Phoenicians - Carthaginians , Ancient Greeks and ruled by the Romans , who were followed by the invasions of the Suebi and Visigothic Germanic peoples.

How can universities and students increase domestic raw material knowledge to help production? The Italian Database GeMMA: from monitoring production to cataloguing mining wastes, a starting point for recovering critical raw materials from abandoned mines? Hidden graphite resources in Turkey: a new supply candidate for Europe? Are the pan-European seas a promising source for critical metals supply? Psychogiou, K.

Antecedents of European expansion

Western colonialism , a political-economic phenomenon whereby various European nations explored, conquered, settled, and exploited large areas of the world. With these events sea power shifted from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic and to the emerging nation-states of Portugal, Spain , the Dutch Republic , France , and England. By discovery, conquest, and settlement, these nations expanded and colonized throughout the world, spreading European institutions and culture. Medieval Europe was largely self-contained until the First Crusade —99 , which opened new political and commercial communications with the Muslim Near East. Although Christian crusading states founded in Palestine and Syria proved ephemeral , commercial relations continued, and the European end of this trade fell largely into the hands of Italian cities.

Underwriting Democracy: Portugal In , only three years after the overturn of the Estado Novo , Portugal applied to become a full member of the EEC with new political credentials. This article contributes to the understanding of the link between democracy and accession to the EEC, assessing the role that democratic principles, acknowledged in several political reports and enshrined in the Treaty of Rome, played at a very early stage in the Portuguese negotiations. Democracy is a delicate flower. The end of the Estado Novo New State authoritative regime, and the beginning of the transition towards democracy, introduced significant changes in the Portuguese foreign policy priorities, specifically in regard to Europe and European integration, even if those changes were not immediate or disruptive.

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Portugal in European and World History

Фонтейн наморщил лоб. - Это по вашим данным. Мидж хотела возразить, но прикусила язык.

Это был один из старых потрепанных севильских автобусов, и первая передача включилась не. Расстояние между Беккером и ним сокращалось. Нужно было во что бы то ни стало догнать его, пока не включилась следующая передача. Сдвоенная труба глушителя выбросила очередное густое облако, перед тем как водитель включил вторую передачу. Беккер увеличил скорость. Поравнявшись с задним бампером, он взял немного правее. Ему была видна задняя дверца: как это принято в Севилье, она оставалась открытой - экономичный способ кондиционирования.

European Geologist journal: archive of previous issues

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