File Name: hiv and aids in zimbabwe .zip
Human Rights Watch documented a number of human rights violations against PLWHA and those who are vulnerable to infection that threatened their rights to health, information, work, equal protection before the law, and nondiscrimination. Operation Murambatsvina and the economically harmful policies associated with informal traders have disrupted lives and increased the risk of HIV infection for thousands, while further endangering those already infected. More insidiously, the failure of the government to protect women by preventing or prosecuting domestic violence and violations of property and inheritance rights perpetuates the greater vulnerability of women and the inability of those infected to seek and receive effective care. In November , a national survey of 5, households of PLWHA or families living with PLWHA on the effects of Operation Murambatsvina by ActionAid found that 61 percent of PLWHA lost their access to home based care; 46 percent lost access to antiretroviral therapy; 45 percent lost treatment for opportunistic infections; 48 percent of PLWHA relocated to areas where treatment and support is limited and 22 percent lost their access to reproductive health support. The situation of PLWHA displaced to the rural areas remains unclear as many international and local humanitarian organizations have been unable to trace people who were displaced to the rural areas. Many reported that they were eventually able to resume home based care and ART.
The programmes have been spearheaded by various stakeholders that include the public and private sectors, nongovernmental organizations, formal and informal institutions, and intergovernmental organizations. There has been a tremendous increase of the programmes as they adapt to local contexts, accommodate new funders, and changes in population attitudes, and expectations in the country. Through a comprehensive literature review, this paper focuses on Behaviour Change, the Antiretroviral Therapy, Home-Based Care, Prevention to Mother To Child Transmission and Voluntary Counselling and Testing programmes and services in relation to the components of the health system that include health service delivery, human resources, finance, leadership and governance, and the medical products and technologies. Thus far, the implications are uneven throughout the health system and there is need to integrate the HIV and AIDS programmes within the health system in order to achieve positive heath outcomes. HIV and AIDS programs have evolved tremendously since their inception, adapting to local context, entry of new funders, and changes in population attitudes and expectations in the country. These programmes are a fact on the ground; they keep millions of people alive, enabling people living with HIV and AIDS to survive and sustain their families.
The country is reported to hold one of the largest recorded numbers of cases in Sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally during this period, children with higher socio-economic status were showing signs of malnutrition associated with poverty, yet the cause of this malnutrition was not yet diagnosed. This is due to a variety of socio-cultural barriers to reporting, as well as the fact that individuals can be asymptomatic for up to two decades before they experience the symptoms that necessitate a diagnosis and treatment. Peter Piot , head of UNAIDS , said that in Zimbabwe, "The declines in HIV rates have been due to changes in behaviour, including increased use of condoms, people delaying the first time they have sexual intercourse, and people having fewer sexual partners. Domestic and international efforts to combat the spread of the virus through expanded access to antiretroviral treatment have contributed to a significant decrease in the prevalence of the virus. Over sixty-five percent of expenditures on HIV in the country come from foreign donors. This program has resulted in greater access to treatment and a decrease in annual HIV- related deaths since the program's first implementation in
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HIV spread rapidly in Zimbabwe in the mid-late s. By the mids, one-quarter of adults in the country were infected with HIV. HIV-1 subtype C is believed to be the predominant sub-type within the country and its spread has been mediated overwhelmingly by heterosexual sex. Sexual networks shaped by cultural and colonial influences, and the combination of a relatively high level of development and marked socio-economic inequalities, have facilitated the spread of HIV infection into the majority rural population, and have thereby fueled the large national epidemic. Classic sexually transmitted infections such as syphilis, gonorrhoea and Chlamydia have been controlled during the epidemic through a pioneering syndromic management programme, but Herpes simplex virus type 2 is extremely common.