human breast milk a review on its composition and bioactivity pdf

Human breast milk a review on its composition and bioactivity pdf

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Human breast milk: A review on its composition and bioactivity

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International Journal of Pediatrics

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Crack cocaine is a psychotropic and neurotoxic drug with high prevalence of consumption, considerate a public health problem and identified as risk factors to human health. Crack cocaine use among women in reproductive age increased in few year and the literature of the neonatal exposure to this substance during pregnancy are limited. Thus, this critical review discusses the major newborn outcomes reported in original studies, highlighting neurologic abnormalities and malformations outcomes.

If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to reset your password. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Breast milk is considered the ideal and preferred feeding for all infants through the first 4—6 months of life.

Human breast milk: A review on its composition and bioactivity

The review recalls the importance of breast milk and deepens the theme of human milk banking, a virtuous reality that is expanding all over the world but is still little known. Our experience teaches us that human milk banking plays many roles that need to be known and shared. This narrative review is an analysis of the literature and experience-driven data on the use of human milk to feed premature infants. This in-depth review is intended to clarify its importance, with the ultimate goal of providing support in our function as clinicians, which is to reduce risks and increase opportunities. It is a scientific priority to deal with breast milk and human milk banking, a virtuous reality which is expanding all over the world but is still little known. The tools of modern science from genomics to molecular anthropology can be leveraged to understand this remarkable process: molecular insights from sugars to oligosaccharides, proteins to encrypted peptides, structures from globules to micelles, intact cells from stem cells to immune cells.

Many studies have investigated the influence of breastfeeding on child health. It is well known that breastfeeding confers short-term benefits for child health by reducing mortality and morbidity from infectious diseases. A WHO report suggests a lower long-term morbidity from gastrointestinal and allergic A WHO report suggests a lower long-term morbidity from gastrointestinal and allergic diseases in infants who were exclusively breastfed for 6 months in comparison to non-breastfed children. Based on these data, UNICEF and WHO current recommendations are "every infant should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life, with continued breastfeeding for up to two years or longer". While the evidence base for the protective effects of breast feeding on early infectious illnesses is strong this is not the case for many non-communicable diseases, where several systematic reviews have reached very different conclusions.

Human milk is considered to be the ideal food for infants. Accurate, representative, and up-to-date nutrient composition data of human milk are crucial for the management of infant feeding, assessment of infant and maternal nutritional needs, and as a guide for developing infant formula. Nonetheless, these resources all suffer major drawbacks, such as being outdated, incomplete profiles, limited sources of data, and uncertain data quality. Furthermore, no nutrient profile was developed specifically for the US population. The purposes of this review were to summarize the current knowledge of human milk nutrient composition from studies conducted in the United States and Canada, and to identify the knowledge gaps and research needs.

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In some cases, when mothers are not able to breastfeed, an equivalent substitute is required. Nowadays, the best substitutes of the human breast milk are infant formulas. Different technological routes may be designed to produce infant formulas according to the main challenges: the compromise between food safety and heat treatment damage. This article aimed to review the current scientific knowledge about how heat treatment affects the macro and micronutrients of milk, extrapolating the expected effects on infant formulas. The covered topics were: The definition and composition of infant formulas, industrial methods of infant formulas production, the effects of heat treatment on milk macro and micronutrients. The World Health Organization WHO recommends that breastfeeding should be exclusive for the first six months of the neonate's life and then must be gradually supplemented with another diet Food and Agriculture Organization, ; Zou et al.

Despite these widely recognized properties, breast-feeding represents an important mother-to-child transmission route of some viral infections. Different studies show that some flaviviruses can occasionally be detected in breast milk, but their transmission to the newborn is still controversial. Colostrum, transitional and mature milk samples were collected from 39 healthy donors. The aqueous fractions were tested in vitro with specific antiviral assays and EVs and GAGs were derived and characterized. HM showed antiviral activity against ZIKV and USUV at all the stages of lactation with no significant differences in the activity of colostrum, transitional or mature milk. Mechanism of action studies demonstrated that colostrum does not inactivate viral particles, but it hampers the binding of both flaviviruses to cells. We studied these viruses in the context of breast-feeding.

This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, its variation, and its clinical relevance. The composition of human milk is the biological norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules eg, lactoferrin are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. Human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, within feeds, by gestational age, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Tags Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter.


Maternal milk, a complex fluid with several bioactive factors, is the best option for the newborn. Its dynamic composition is influenced by diverse.


International Journal of Pediatrics

BM has carbohydrates, lipids, complex proteins, and other biologically active components which have a direct effect on infant growth. AIM: The aim of the study was to correlate anthropometric data of the infant to macronutrients in BM fat, protein, and carbohydrates and to find some modifiable issues affecting macronutrient contents of BM for the benefits of upcoming infants. BM was expressed by an electric pump, macronutrient content was assessed. Anthropometric data of the babies and mothers were obtained, gestational age, parity, age of the women, and the route of birth were recorded. BM fat content was negatively correlated with gestational age and maternal age.

 Понимаю.  - В голосе звонившего по-прежнему чувствовалась нерешительность.  - Ну, тогда… надеюсь, хлопот не. - Отлично.

Breast Milk Macronutrients in Relation to Infants’ Anthropometric Measures

Правда.

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 Это тебе велел Фонтейн? - спросила. Бринкерхофф отвернулся. - Чед, уверяю тебя, в шифровалке творится что-то непонятное.

На полпути к ТРАНСТЕКСТУ тишина шифровалки нарушилась. Где-то в темноте, казалось, прямо над ними, послышались пронзительные гудки. Стратмор повернулся, и Сьюзан сразу же его потеряла. В страхе она вытянула вперед руки, но коммандер куда-то исчез. Там, где только что было его плечо, оказалась черная пустота.

About this Research Topic

 Послушай, Мидж, к Стратмору я не отношусь ни плохо ни хорошо. Ну, понимаешь, он криптограф. Они все, как один, - эгоцентристы и маньяки. Если им что нужно, то обязательно еще вчера. Каждый затраханный файл может спасти мир. - И что же из этого следует. - Из этого следует, - Джабба шумно вздохнул, - что Стратмор такой же псих, как и все его сотруднички.

 Ты хочешь сказать, что это уродливое дерьмовое колечко принадлежит. Глаза Беккера расширились. - Ты его. Двухцветный равнодушно кивнул. - Где оно? - не отставал Беккер. - Понятия не имею.  - Парень хмыкнул.

 У немца. Его взял немец. Дэвид почувствовал, как пол уходит у него из-под ног. - Немец. Какой немец. - Тот, что был в парке. Я рассказал о нем полицейскому.

Сьюзан тихо вскрикнула: по-видимому, отключение электричества стерло электронный код.

5 comments

  • Yuki V. 16.04.2021 at 06:28

    Breast milk is the perfect nutrition for infants, a result of millions of years of evolution, finely attuning it to the requirements of the infant. Breast milk contains many.

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  • Honoria R. 21.04.2021 at 03:28

    To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors. Request full-text PDF.

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  • Millie B. 25.04.2021 at 13:46

    Breast milk is vital in protecting infants from neonatal sepsis and for the promotion of infant growth and development. Its role in the mediation of potentially.

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