electron transport system and oxidative phosphorylation pdf

Electron transport system and oxidative phosphorylation pdf

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Cellular respiration

Physiology

Mitochondrial electron transport chain, ROS generation and uncoupling (Review)

Endocrine Disrupters and Metabolism View all 22 Articles.

Cellular respiration

In eukaryotic cells, the vast majority of ATP synthesis occurs in the mitochondria in a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Even plants, which generate ATP by photophosphorylation in chloroplasts, contain mitochondria for the synthesis of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation is linked to a process known as electron transport Figure 5. The electron transport system, located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, transfers electrons donated by the reduced electron carriers NADH and FADH2 obtained from glycolysis, the citric acid cycle or fatty acid oxidation through a series of electrons acceptors, to oxygen. In this way, the oxidation of sugars and fatty acids is coupled to the synthesis of ATP, effectively extracting energy from food.

For the electron transport chain to be able to pump protons to one side of the mitochondrial inner membrane, it must first have a source of those electrons and protons. We reviewed the three Energy Systems in section 9. The animal mitochondria will make more ATP B. The 4 steps of cellular respiration can be seen in the image below. Electron Transport Chain.

You have just read about two pathways in cellular respiration—glycolysis and the citric acid cycle—that generate ATP. However, most of the ATP generated during the aerobic catabolism of glucose is not generated directly from these pathways. Rather, it is derived from a process that begins with moving electrons through a series of electron transporters that undergo redox reactions: the electron transport chain. This causes hydrogen ions to accumulate within the matrix space. Therefore, a concentration gradient forms in which hydrogen ions diffuse out of the matrix space by passing through ATP synthase. The electron transport chain is a series of electron transporters embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane that shuttles electrons from NADH and FADH 2 to molecular oxygen.

Physiology

The electron transport chain is the main source of ATP production in the body and as such is vital for life. The previous stages of respiration generate electron carrier molecules, such as NADH, to be used in the electron transport chain. Clinically, some molecules can interfere with the electron transport chain, which can be life threatening due to its importance and these are discussed in detail later. The electron transport chain is located in the mitochondria. There are five main protein complexes in the electron transport chain, located in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. These electrons are then passed to the next complex in the chain.


Small, mobile peripheral protein. Inner mitochondrial membrane. Shuttles electrons between complexes III and IV. Very conserved across all living systems​.


Mitochondrial electron transport chain, ROS generation and uncoupling (Review)

NCBI Bookshelf. Molecular Cell Biology. New York: W. Freeman;

Due to the existence of electron leak and proton leak, not all electrons in the ETC can be transferred to the final electron acceptor O 2 and the energy released by the transferred electrons cannot be completely coupled with ATP generation. However, both the ROS generated by electron leak and the UCPs implicated in proton leak play an important role in the physiology and pathology of cells. Therefore, it is extremely important to understand the process of electron transfer in the ETC and the mechanism of electron leak and proton leak. In this review, the basic components of the ETC are discussed and the process of electron transfer in each complex, including the structure, composition and function of each complex is reviewed. Moreover, proton leak is emphatically introduced, including the structure, tissue distribution, functions and regulatory factors of UCPs.

electron transport chain lecture notes pdf

Oxidative stress and mitochondrial function are at the core of many degenerative conditions. However, the interaction between oxidative stress and in vivo mitochondrial function is unclear.

Chemiosmotic model

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4 comments

  • Fabien F. 19.04.2021 at 02:00

    Electron Transport — the oxidation phase of Oxidative Phosphorylation 3.

    Reply
  • Tarsicio O. 19.04.2021 at 11:55

    Electron Transport Chain is the process by which NADH and. FADH2 are oxidized and a proton gradient is formed. Oxidative phosphorylation is the process of.

    Reply
  • Ruby S. 22.04.2021 at 02:26

    Yamaha outboard owners manual pdf download free free download flippingbook pdf publisher crack

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  • Auguste G. 22.04.2021 at 18:12

    The electron transport chain is built up of peptides , enzymes , and other molecules.

    Reply

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