chemical warfare agents toxicology and treatment pdf

Chemical warfare agents toxicology and treatment pdf

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Published: 16.04.2021

References

Introduction

Classification of CW Agents

A Review of Chemical Warfare Agents and Treatment Options

CWAs include five primary categories: nerve agents, asphyxiants, blistering agents, toxic industrial chemicals and blood agents. The French military used tear gas and acetone-based compounds for crowd control; chlorine gas was placed in capsules and released at the Battle of Ypres in , and was used as an alternative weapon after the German military exhausted materials for explosive weapons and began to investigate and use CWAs.

Note to reader: This fact sheet is intended to provide general awareness and education on specific chemical agents. For information on preparedness and response e. Nerve agents are chemicals that affect the nervous system.

References

Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. CW agents are extremely toxic synthetic chemicals that can be dispersed as a gas, liquid or aerosol or as agents adsorbed to particles to become a powder. These CW agents have either lethal or incapacitating effects on humans. Thousands of toxic substances are known, but only some of them are considered as CW agents based on their characteristics, viz.

E-mail: horstthiermann bundeswehr. The treatment of nerve agent poisoning is still a major challenge for medical services. The high toxicity of these agents calls for specific methods for self-protection, e. Patients are at risk due to the fast onset of life threatening cholinergic crisis. Accordingly, therapy has to start as early as possible. As inhibition of acetylcholinesterase is considered to be the main toxic mechanism of nerve agents, treatment is directed towards antagonizing the effects of cholinergic overstimulation. To this end, atropine has to be applied according to the severity of poisoning.

Introduction

Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this essential reference offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors and biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, and countermeasures. Expanding on the ground-breaking first edition, Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents has been completely updated, presenting the most recent advances in field. Brand new chapters include a case study of the Iran-Iraq war, an overview of chemical weapons of mass destruction, explosives, Ricin, the human respiratory system, alternative testing methods, brain injuries, and more. Toxicologists, defense scientists, homeland and governmental security, and risk assessment specialists. Ramesh C. He is recipient of Murray State University's distinguished researcher award of the year, and Outstanding research award of the year

Classification of CW Agents

They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds.

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A Review of Chemical Warfare Agents and Treatment Options

Organophosphorus compounds as chemical warfare agents: a review. Reinaldo T. Delfino; Tatiana S. Chemical warfare agents constitute one of the greatest threats in the modern world. Among them, the neurotoxic agents are of special interest due to their high lethality and danger. Neurotoxic agents are organophosphorus compounds that act by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is fundamental for the control of transmission of nervous impulses. There are several ways of treating intoxication by organophosphorus compounds, but none of them is efficient against all the known neurotoxic agents or against all of their effects.

Wiley Online Library Sample Chapter. Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology and Treatment, Second Edition provides a detailed summary of chemical warfare agents, their physico-chemical properties, dispersion and fate in the environment, tooxicology and management of their effects on humans. It also discusses decontamination and protective equipment. Chemical Warfare Agents has been totally revised since the successful first edition and expanded to about three times the length, with many new chapters and much more in-depth consideration of all the topics. The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts in various aspects of chemical warfare agents and edited by an experienced team to produce a clear review of the field. The book now contains a wealth of material on the mechanisms of action of the major chemical warfare agents, including the nerve agent cyclosarin, formally considered to be of secondary importance, as well as ricin and abrin. Historically, chemical warfare agents were generally considered to be threats to military personnel.

Но Мидж эта ситуация явно доставляла удовольствие. Она подошла к окну, вертя бумагу перед глазами, чтобы найти лучший угол для падения лунного света. - Мидж… пошли.

What are nerve agents?

Створки давили на плечо с неимоверной силой. Не успел Стратмор ее остановить, как она скользнула в образовавшийся проем. Он попытался что-то сказать, но Сьюзан была полна решимости. Ей хотелось поскорее оказаться в Третьем узле, и она достаточно хорошо изучила своего шефа, чтобы знать: Стратмор никуда не уйдет, пока она не разыщет ключ, спрятанный где-то в компьютере Хейла. Ей почти удалось проскользнуть внутрь, и теперь она изо всех сил пыталась удержать стремившиеся захлопнуться створки, но на мгновение выпустила их из рук. Створки стали стремительно сближаться.

На ВР последняя стенка напоминала тонюсенькую пленку. Вокруг нее было черно от нитей, готовых ринуться внутрь. Справа бесконечной чередой мелькали кадры, запечатлевшие последние минуты Танкадо: выражение отчаяния на его лице, вытянутую руку, кольцо, поблескивающее на солнце. Сьюзан смотрела на эти кадры, то выходившие из фокуса, то вновь обретавшие четкость. Она вглядывалась в глаза Танкадо - и видела в них раскаяние. Он не хотел, чтобы это зашло так далеко, - говорила она .

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  • Zerbino T. 19.04.2021 at 21:36

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