File Name: wnt pcp signaling pathway and human cancer review readers.zip
Signaling filopodia, termed cytonemes, are dynamic actin-based membrane structures that regulate the exchange of signaling molecules and their receptors within tissues.
The Human papillomavirus plays an important role in the initiation and progression of cervical cancer. However, it is a necessary but not sufficient cause to develop invasive carcinoma; hence, other factors are required in the pathogenesis of this malignancy. Cervical carcinoma CC is one of the most common cancers and a leading cause of death among women worldwide. An important percentage of cases occur in the developing world, where in some countries CC is the main cause of death in reproductive-aged and economically active women with limited access to early diagnosis or effective treatment [ 1 ]. Over 30 years ago, some authors pointed out that CC had sexually transmitted disease behavior [ 3 ], while others hypothesized and analyzed a possible role of the human papillomavirus HPV in this neoplasia [ 4 , 5 ]. At present, more than types of HPV have been identified [ 8 ], 40 of which infect the genital epithelia. Genital HPVs are classified in three groups according to their potential to induce cervical lesions: high-risk, probable high-risk and low-risk types [ 9 ].
Wnt signaling is one of the key cascades regulating development and stemness, and has also been tightly associated with cancer. The role of Wnt signaling in carcinogenesis has most prominently been described for colorectal cancer, but aberrant Wnt signaling is observed in many more cancer entities. Here, we review current insights into novel components of Wnt pathways and describe their impact on cancer development. Furthermore, we highlight expanding functions of Wnt signaling for both solid and liquid tumors. We also describe current findings how Wnt signaling affects maintenance of cancer stem cells, metastasis and immune control.
Wnt ligands and their receptors orchestrate many essential cellular and physiological processes. During development they control differentiation, proliferation, migration, and patterning, while in the adult, they regulate tissue homeostasis, primarily through their effects on stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Underpinning these diverse biological activities is a complex set of intracellular signaling pathways that are still poorly understood. It appears that Rho GTPases integrate Wnt-induced signals spatially and temporally to promote morphological and transcriptional changes affecting cell behavior. Mutations in components of this pathway e.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License. As the intracellular and intercellular WNT signaling networks orchestrate embryogenesis and homeostasis, genetic alterations in WNT signaling molecules are involved in the pathogenesis of various types of human cancers and noncancerous diseases Fig. Overview of WNT signaling cascades. Context-dependent WNT signaling through canonical and non-canonical signaling cascades regulates cell fate and proliferation, tissue or tumor microenvironment and whole-body homeostasis. WNT signaling dysregulation in cancer and non-cancerous diseases. Despite amazing progress in basic studies of WNT signaling and genetics, there is still a huge gap that must be addressed before WNT-targeted therapy for patients can be applied.
Wnt5a plays an essential role in tissue development by regulating cell migration, though the molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Our study investigated the pathways involved in Wnt5a-dependent cell motility during the formation of dentin and pulp. Over-expression of Wnt5a promoted cell adhesion and formation of focal adhesion complexes FACs in human dental papilla cells hDPCs , while inhibiting cell migration. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Metrics details. The Wnt signaling pathway is involved in a wide range of embryonic patterning events and maintenance of homeostasis in adult tissues. The pathological role of the Wnt pathway has emerged from studies showing a high frequency of specific human cancers associated with mutations that constitutively activate the transcriptional response of these pathways.
Its implication in embryonic development, cell migration, and polarization has been shown. Nevertheless, alterations in this signaling have also been related with pathological events such as sustaining and proliferating the cancer stem cell CSC subset present in the tumor bulk. Related with this, WNT signaling has been associated with the maintenance, expansion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of stem cells, and furthermore with two distinctive features of this tumor population: therapeutic resistance MDR, multidrug resistance and immune escape. These mechanisms are developed and maintained by WNT activation through the transcriptional control of the genes involved in such processes. This review focuses on the description of the best known WNT pathways and the molecules involved in them. Special attention is given to the WNT cascade proteins deregulated in tumors, which have a decisive role in tumor survival. Some of these proteins function as extrusion pumps that, in the course of chemotherapy, expel the drugs from the cells; others help the tumoral cells hide from the immune effector mechanisms.
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