software and hardware of computer pdf

Software and hardware of computer pdf

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2.3. Introduction to Computers


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2.3. Introduction to Computers

Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes these data under the control of set of instructions called program and gives the result output and saves output for the future use.

It can process both numerical and non-numerical arithmetic and logical calculations. It works the principle of I-P-O Cycle. Input is the raw information or facts entered into a computer from the input devices. It is the collection of letters, numbers, images etc. Process is the operation of data as per given instruction. It is totally internal process of the computer system. Output is the processed data given by computer after data processing.

Output is also called Result or information. We can save these results in the storage devices for the future use. All the physical and tangible components of Computer are called Hardware. In other words all the components that we can touch come under the category of Hardware eg Keyboard, Mouse. Software is a set of instructions or a program that enables a hardware to run. Without the use of software a hardware cannot work.

Windows 8, Photoshop, MS Office etc. The electricity consumption was very high. In 2 nd generation computers, Vacuum tubes were replaced by Transistors. The first operating system developed in this generation. The 3 rd generation computers replaced transistors with Integrated circuit known as chip. From Small scale integrated circuits which had 10 transistors per chip, technology developed to MSI circuits with transistors per chip.

High level languages invented in this generation. As a result microprocessors came into existence. The computers using this technology known to be Micro Computers. High capacity hard disk were invented. There is great development in data communication. Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality.

Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. Those devices which help to enter data into computer system. Those devices which help to display the processed information.

Monitor, Printer, Plotter, Projector. The main component to make a computer operate is the computer chip or microprocessor. It is also known as Brain of computer.

It performs arithmetic and logic operations. It facilitates the remembrance power to computer system. It refers to the physical devices used to store programs sequences of instructions or data e. The term primary memory is used for the information in physical systems which are fast i. RAM , as a distinction from secondary memory, which are physical devices for program and data storage which are slow to access but offer higher memory capacity.

Primary memory stored on secondary memory is called virtual memory. Volatile memory is computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information. The data is primarily stored on RAM.

This is also known as Read-Write memory as both the operation can take place on it. It is volatile in nature because as soon as the power is off its contents are also removed. It can be of two types:- 1. Dynamic RAM is more complicated to interface to and control and needs regular refresh cycles to prevent its contents being lost.

However, DRAM uses only one transistor and a capacitor per bit, allowing it to reach much higher densities and, with more bits on a memory chip, be much cheaper per bit. Non-volatile memory is computer memory that can retain the stored information even when not powered.

As the name suggests we can perform only read operation on ROM. It is permanent in nature. In ROM booting instructions for computer in the form of firmware are stored.

Cache memory is an intermediate between RAM and processor. It is very fast. Cache memory is random access memory RAM that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular RAM.

As the microprocessor processes data, it looks first in the cache memory and if it finds the data there from a previous reading of data , it does not have to do the more timeconsuming reading of data from larger memory.

The format offers more than five times the storage capacity of traditional DVDs and can hold up to 25GB on a single-layer disc and 50GB on a dual-layer disc. An analog computer is a form of computer that uses continuous physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.

Eg: Thermometer, Speedometer, Petrol pump indicator, Multimeter. A computer that performs calculations and logical operations with quantities represented as digits, usually in the binary number system.

A combination of computers those are capable of inputting and outputting in both digital and analog signals. A hybrid computer system setup offers a cost effective method of performing complex simulations. The instruments used in medical science lies in this category. The fastest type of computer. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations. For example, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer.

Other uses of supercomputers include animated graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, and petroleum exploration. A very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. In the hierarchy that starts with a simple microprocessor in watches, for example at the bottom and moves to supercomputers at the top, mainframes are just below supercomputers.

In some ways, mainframes are more powerful than supercomputers because they support more simultaneous programs. But supercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe. A midsized computer. In size and power, minicomputers lie between workstations and mainframes. In the past decade, the distinction between large minicomputers and small mainframes has blurred, however, as has the distinction between small minicomputers and workstations. But in general, a minicomputer is a multiprocessing system capable of supporting from 4 to about users simultaneously.

Generally, servers are comes in this category. Desktop Computer: a personal or micro-mini computer sufficient to fit on a desk. Laptop Computer: a portable computer complete with an integrated screen and keyboard. It is generally smaller in size than a desktop computer and larger than a notebook computer.

Palmtops have no keyboard but the screen serves both as an input and output device. A terminal or desktop computer in a network. As specified earlier Software, simply are the computer programs.

The instructions given to the computer in the form of a program is called Software. Software is the set of programs, which are used for different purposes. All the programs used in computer to perform specific task is called Software.

Office , Ms. Operating system is an interface between hardware and user which is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of a computer.

It hosts the several applications that run on a computer and handles the operations of computer hardware. Pronounced uoo-niks, a popular multi-user, multitasking operating system developed at Bell Labs in the early s.

UNIX was one of the first operating systems to be written in a highlevel programming language, namely C. This meant that it could be installed on virtually any computer for which a C compiler existed. Pronounced lee-nucks or lih-nucks. A freely-distributable open source operating system that runs on a number of hardware platforms. The Linux kernel was developed mainly by Linus Torvalds and it is based on Unix. Microsoft Windows is a series of graphical interface operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.

The most recent client version of Windows is Windows 7; the most recent server version is Windows Server R2; the most recent mobile version is Windows Phone 7. Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in This release aims more at the security part and comes with an easy to use application to harden your Desktop.

Mobile OS: A mobile operating system, also called a mobile OS, is an operating system that is specifically designed to run on mobile devices such as mobile phones, smartphones, PDAs, tablet computers and other handheld devices. The mobile operating system is the software platform on top of which other programs, called application programs, can run on mobile devices.


Computer hardware includes the physical parts of a computer , such as the case , [1] central processing unit CPU , monitor , mouse , keyboard , computer data storage , graphics card , sound card , speakers and motherboard. By contrast, software is the set of instructions that can be stored and run by hardware. Hardware is so-termed because it is " hard " or rigid with respect to changes, whereas software is "soft" because it is easy to change. Hardware is typically directed by the software to execute any command or instruction. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system, although other systems exist with only hardware. The template for all modern computers is the Von Neumann architecture , detailed in a paper by Hungarian mathematician John von Neumann.

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Computer hardware is any physical device used in or with your machine, whereas software is a collection of programming code installed on your computer's hard drive. In other words, hardware is something you can hold in your hand, whereas software cannot be held in your hand. You can touch hardware, but you cannot touch software. Hardware is physical , and software is virtual. While software may come on a CD or DVD , the disc is the storage medium for the programming code that makes up the software.

Hardware refers to the physical elements of a computer. This is also sometime called the machinery or the equipment of the computer. Examples of hardware in a computer are the keyboard, the monitor, the mouse and the central processing unit. However, most of a computer's hardware cannot be seen; in other words, it is not an external element of the computer, but rather an internal one, surrounded by the computer's casing tower.

Computer Fundamentals PDF Free Download Parts Software & Hardware

Von-Neumann computer consists of two main components: memory and CPU. This concept has not yet been overcome and even the latest computers still come from von-Neumann architecture.

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Computer Awareness is tested in almost every exam. One of the oft seen topics in Computers is Hardware. Basic Computer Hardware questions are easy to remember and can count for easy marks. Download as PDF for revision later. Every part of your computer is the result of years of research and development. Parts that were once hand made at a cost of thousands of man-hours are now mass produced for a fraction of a rupee.

By Pooja Gupta. For the working of the Types of Computer Hardware, it needs both hardware and software components. For every computer system, there can be several hardware components attached to the system as per the requirements. The computer hardware contains mechanical elements and electronic elements of the computer. The hardware of the computer system includes monitor, CPU, keyboard, mouse, printer, sound system, RAM, hard disk and many more.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The computer technology that allows us to develop three-dimensional virtual environments VEs consists of both hardware and software. The current popular, technical, and scientific interest in VEs is inspired, in large part, by the advent and availability of increasingly powerful and affordable visually oriented, interactive, graphical display systems and techniques. Graphical image generation and display capabilities that were not previously widely available are now found on the desktops of many professionals and are finding their way into the home.

Computer Hardware

Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes these data under the control of set of instructions called program and gives the result output and saves output for the future use.


  • Agnus T. 25.04.2021 at 13:53

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