File Name: object oriented system analysis and design ashrafi .zip
Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Other editions.
An information system can be viewed from various perspectives: its goals, its processes or its components, i. Information systems are also products and, like other products, they must satisfy their consumers and must be developed by following a methodology that assures the best possible quality and the best possible use of resources.
Information has three main constituents: data, goal and logic. If any of one these elements are missing, then data does not become information. The relationship between data and information is hierarchical: what is information at one level can become data at a higher level that strives for a larger meaning. Therefore, a monolithic entity is not a system; neither is an entity without a distinct identity. A system may consist of other systems or it may be a subsystem of a larger system.
As a result, the relationship between systems can become hierarchical. An information system is an open system that processes data into information according to a set of clear and unambiguous logical assumptions. Features that an information system inherits from information and systems constrain each other. An archive stores data systematically, but it does not produce information; therefore an archive is not an information system by itself even though it is very likely to be a part of information technology.
This vehicle is provided by information technology, a collection of methods, tools, material and know-how that support an information system. Without know- how, other components of technology are wasted. Methods function as guideline to people with know-how to accomplish a task.
In turn, new experiences must refine existing methods. But even though no technological revolution is possible without them consider paper and printing , they constitute only one side of the technology triangle. Consider, again, paper and printing: paper, lead and wine press were available to Europeans long before Johannes Gutenberg invented moveable type printing in the 15th century.
Information automation, largely the gift of computer technology, is the application of information logic by a device that executes a program. At the early stages of the software revolution, when automation requirements were modest, applications were seen as independent entities and were created as monoliths. As the complexity of software products has become overwhelming, however, applications must be viewed and developed as integral parts of information systems. Fortunately, the technology to build systems instead of monoliths is now mostly mature.
As a result, to be successful, software must be conceived as a product, designed as a product and marketed as a product. At the same time, information systems are turning from tools of business, trade and administration into an integral part of the enterprise. Today, information is becoming an asset equal in importance to others such as expertise, organization, equipment, property, labor, and capital.
Information, like other assets, must be managed, stored, bought and sold and is, sometimes, stolen. Managing information systems has evolved to a level of complexity that it now requires a functional division of its own within most organizations. Both B2B and B2C are often called e-commerce. Whereas previous systems provide tactical advantages, BI must provide a strategic view.
AI is used in a vast and expanding array of products: robotics, forecasting, virtual reality games and simulations and expert systems. Products are not developed in the exact same manner, but certain general guidelines apply to all.
The first is to identify requirements. Requirements describe the objectives of the product. But they are not the same as product specifications. A finished product has two sets of features: one set satisfies business requirements, while the second set make the first set possible. A bicycle must have two wheels and be light requirements , but the wheels must be sturdy enough not to bend.
By using spokes a solution feature the requirements are met, but spokes are not part of requirements. Methodology results from abstracting and organizing experience within a theoretical framework. In simpler times, when demands on software were modest, methodology did not play a role. The ever-increasing complexity of information systems, however, makes methodology indispensable.
The development of any product by a team under time and financial constraints is in need of project management: planning, monitoring and controlling the course of the development process and the resources used by that process. Project management has general principles, practices and guidelines, but must be adapted to the goal of the project, to the resources available to a specific project, and to the methodology used to achieve the goal. In product development, it is prudent to distinguish between problem space and solution space.
Problem space is the source of requirements; it is the environment in which the final product must work and solve problems. The solution space, on the other hand, contains issues that are related to the product solution itself, not the problems addressed by the product. In problems space, we analyze business problems and their related concepts; in solution space we design the product. The two spaces, however, overlap and affect each other.
Review Questions 1. Explain the difference between data and information. Give two examples for each. Data is any fact or assumption that is combined with other data to constitute a meaningful message — information.
The patterns, associations, or relationships among all this data can provide information. For example, analysis of retail point of sale transaction data can yield information on which products are selling and when. Data are the building blocks of information. Data are any facts, numbers, or text that can be processed by a computer. Today, organizations are accumulating vast and growing amounts of data in different formats and different databases. Explain why your university is considered a system.
Give examples of other systems that you know. Our university consists of elements; students, professors, facilities, curriculums, etc. Other examples include: banks, accounting systems, hospitals and any other organization that consists of elements that work together to achieve an identifiable goal.
What is the difference between an information system and information technology? While information systems process data into information, the know-how, methods, tools, and material used to support information systems constitute information technology. What is collectively called information technology is actually composed of one or more processing units and three systems: communication, data management, and control.
How data management system differs from communication system? Data Management System is a set of rules, procedures, material, and tools that stores, organizes, protects, and retrieves data needed by the information system.
A communication System transmits data to the information system and brings information to its users. A communication system consists of communication devices, protocols, and the connections between those devices.
Give examples of information systems and automated information systems. How do they differ from each other? An information system does not have to be automated; the processing of data into information can be done manually.
Creating a report balance sheet manually without the aid of a computer could be considered an information system. Post offices had been in operation for decades without using computers where all the sorting and processing was done manually. Automated information systems use electronic devices to process data into information, store and disseminate them on request.
Today most information systems are automated. A Business Intelligence System is set of subsystems and applications that allow management to analyze operational and market data, create models, make forecasts, and virtually test business decisions. BI systems help the strategic direction of the business. What is the difference between business intelligence and artificial intelligence? Artificial intelligence systems enable machines to automatically perform tasks that otherwise would require human intelligence.
They solve complex problems by using non-mathematical algorithms and simulate real or imaginary environments. They also provide expert opinion by using available information, heuristic, and inference. Business intelligence is an input to artificial intelligence systems.
Research projects are designed to encourage students to conduct research and find out for themselves the added value of information systems in the business world. These projects should help students develop leadership skills and the discipline for working in groups and submitting a report that is professional, punctual, and represents team view collectively. We have asked for creation of a study group and scheduling a discussion session for the group.
Selecting one group member as the leader for each week allows students to exercise their leadership aspirations. Discussion Notes. And in Mesopotamia, security for contracts and records of financial transactions was provided by covering the tablets with a clay envelope on which the parties made an impression of their personal seals. Clay or stone tablets are, of course, not easy to work with.
Therefore, the search for materials suitable for data management systems has been an ongoing enterprise in all civilizations in need of efficient data management. Egyptians introduced papyrus made from the stem of a plant that grows around the Nile delta which was later adopted by the ancient Greeks and Romans.
Object-oriented software engineering an agile unified Gene linetsky is a startup founder and software engineer in the san francisco bay area. He has worked in the tech industry for over 30 years and is currently the director of engineering at poynt, a technology company building smart point-of-sale terminals for businesses. Object oriented software engineering practical software development using uml and java. Object oriented analysisobject oriented analysis-- use case use case driven the object oriented analysis phase of software development is concerned with determining the system requirements and identifying classes and their relationship to other classes in the problem domain. Object-oriented software engineering oose is a software design technique that is used in software design in object-oriented programming.
View larger. Preview this title online. Download instructor resources. Additional order info. K educators : This link is for individuals purchasing with credit cards or PayPal only.
View larger. Request a copy. Buy this product. Download instructor resources. Alternative formats. For courses in object-oriented systems analysis and design. This text teaches students object-oriented systems analysis and design in a highly practical and accessible way.
KEY BENEFIT: This text teaches students object-oriented systems analysis and design in a highly practical and accessible stpetersnt.org TOPICS: Information.
Overview 1 Chapter Topics 1 Introduction 1 2. Solutions Problem Space vs. Solution Space Requirements vs. Service oriented computing is a new software engineering.
The system can't perform the operation now. Try again later. Citations per year.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6 10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in the author or publisher any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any affiliation with or endorsement of this book by such owners.