hindutva and national renaissance pdf

Hindutva and national renaissance pdf

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Hindutva and National Renaissance


Hinduism is a religion which is vast and according to Subramanian Swamy, the author, cannot be defended or protected by one individual or personal rituals of one person. Hindutva and National Renaissance is sure to give you an in depth study of the religion and its revival. Hindutva and National Renaissance is all about how a collective mindset considers India as the motherland of Hinduism from Himalayas to the Indian Ocean.


Hindutva transl. Hinduness is the predominant form of Hindu nationalism in India. The Hindutva movement has been described as a variant of "right-wing extremism" [5] and as "almost fascist in the classical sense", adhering to a concept of homogenised majority and cultural hegemony.

Hindutva was mainstreamed into Indian politics with Narendra Modi 's election as Prime Minister in Sindh ; gradually extended by Persians, Greeks, and Arabs, to northern India as a whole. According to Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions , Hindutva is a concept of "Indian cultural, national, and religious identity".

Some Indians insist, however, that Hindutva is primarily a cultural term to refer to the traditional and indigenous heritage of the Indian nation-state, and they compare the relationship between Hindutva and India to that of Zionism and Israel. According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations , "Hindutva, translated as 'Hinduness,' refers to the ideology of Hindu nationalists, stressing the common culture of the inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent.

Modern politicians have attempted to play down the racial and anti-Muslim aspects of Hindutva, stressing the inclusiveness of the Indian identity; but the term has Fascist undertones. Later, Hindu-nationalist ideologues transformed the concept into a strategy to include non-Hindus, in order to widen their social base, and for political mobilization. The article further states, "proponents of Hindutva have sought to promote the identification of national identity with the religious and broader cultural heritage of Hindus.

Measures taken to achieve this end have included attempts to 'reclaim' individuals judged to have taken up 'alien' religions, the pursuit of social, cultural and philanthropic activities designed to strengthen awareness of Hindu belonging, and direct political action through various organisations, including recognized political parties such as the Bharatiya Janata Party BJP. The three essentials of Hindutva in Savarkar's definition were the common nation rashtra , common race jati , and common culture or civilisation sanskriti.

Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Savarkar restricted "Hindu nationality" to "Indian religions" in the sense that they shared a common culture and fondness for the land of their origin. According to Christophe Jaffrelot , a political scientist specialising in South Asia, Savarkar — declaring himself as an atheist — "minimizes the importance of religion in his definition of Hindu", and instead emphasises an ethnic group with a shared culture and cherished geography.

To Savarkar, states Jaffrelot, "Muslims were the real enemies, not the British", because their Islamic ideology posed "a threat to the real nation, namely Hindu Rashtra" in his vision.

He included those who had converted to Christianity or Islam but accepted and cherished the shared Indic culture, considering them as those who can be re-integrated. Savarkar's notion of Hindutva formed the foundation for his Hindu nationalism.

The definition and the use of Hindutva and its relationship with Hinduism has been a part of several court cases in India. The decision has influenced how the term Hindutva has been understood in later cases, in particular the seven decisions of the Supreme Court in the s that are now called the "Hindutva judgments". It may well be that these words are used in a speech to promote secularism or to emphasise the way of life of the Indian people and the Indian culture or ethos, or to criticise the policy of any political party as discriminatory or intolerant.

According to him, it is unfortunate that "the communal propaganda machinery relentlessly disseminates "Hindutva" as a communal word, something that has also become embedded in the minds and language of opinion leaders, including politicians, media, civil society and the intelligentsia". The term "Hindutva" first appeared in the mids in the novel Anandamath by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.

The word Hindutva was already in use by the late s by Chandranath Basu , [30] who coined its usage in [31] [32] [33] and later the national figure Bal Gangadhar Tilak. Johnson, a religious studies scholar with a focus on Hinduism. In particular, it was pan-Islamism and similar "Pan-isms" that he assumed made the Hindus vulnerable, as he wrote:. O Hindus, consolidate and strengthen Hindu nationality; not to give wanton offence to any of our non-Hindu compatriots, in fact to any one in the world but in just and urgent defence of our race and land; to render it impossible for others to betray her or to subject her to unprovoked attack by any of those "Pan-isms" that are struggling forth from continent to continent.

Since Savarkar's time, the "Hindu identity" and the associated Hindutva ideology has been built upon the perceived vulnerability of Indian religions, culture and heritage from those who through "orientalist construction" have vilified them as inferior to a non-Indian religion, culture and heritage.

According to Arvind Sharma , a scholar of Hinduism, Hindutva has not been a "static and monolithic concept", rather its meaning and "context, text and subtext has changed over time".

The struggles of the colonial era and the formulation of neo-Hinduism by the early 20th-century added a sense of "ethnicity" to the original "Hinduness" meaning of Hindutva. Savarkar and his Hindutva colleagues adopted the social Darwinism theories prevalent by the s. In general, the Hindutva thought among many Indians has "tried to align itself with the culture and nation" axes. According to Prabhu Bapu, a historian and scholar of Oriental Studies, the term and the contextual meaning of Hindutva emerged from the Indian experience in the colonial era, memories of its religious wars as the Mughal Empire decayed, an era of Muslim and Christian proselytisation, a feeling that their traditions and cultures were being insulted, whereby the Hindu intellectuals formulated Hindutva as a "Hindu identity" as a prelude to a national resurgence and a unified Indian nation against the "foreign invaders".

According to Chetan Bhatt, the various forms of Hindu nationalism including the recent "cultural nationalist" form of Hindutva, have roots in the second half of the 19th-century. These ideas included those of a nation, nationalism, race, Aryanism , Orientalism , Romanticism and others. He studied in London between and His political activities and intellectual journeys through the European publications, according to Bhatt, influenced him, his future writings and the 20th-century Hindutva ideology that emerged from his writings.

This organisation rapidly grew to become the largest Hindu nationalist movement. Hedgewar's RSS not only propagated Hindutva ideology, it developed a grassroots organizational structure shakhas to reform the Hindu society.

Village level groups met for morning and evening physical training sessions, martial training and Hindutva ideology lessons. This practice of keeping out of national and international politics was retained by his successor Golwalkar through s, according to political scientist Jaffrelot.

Moonje met with Mussolini and expressed a desire to replicate the fascist youth movement in India. Therefore "cultural nationalism" is a euphemism, states Augustine, and it is meant to mask the creation of a state with a "Hindu religious identity". In parallel to the RSS, Savarkar after his release from the colonial prison joined and became the president of Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha in There, he used the terms Hindutva and Hindu Rashtra liberally, according to Graham.

He asked for the membership of Hindu Mahasabha to be thrown open to all communities. When this was not accepted, he resigned from the party and founded a new political party in collaboration with the RSS. He understood Hinduism as a nationality rather than a community but, realising that this is not the common understanding of the term Hindu , he chose "Bharatiya" instead of "Hindu" to name the new party, which came to be called the Bharatiya Jana Sangh.

The series of investigations by these government commissions, states the Political Science scholar Nandini Deo, later found the RSS leadership and "the RSS innocent of a role in the assassination".

In this period, while RSS remained "discretely out of politics", Jan Sangh, another Hindutva-ideology-based organisation entered the political arena. The Jan Sangh had limited success in the Indian general elections between and Between —, Indira Gandhi declared and enforced Emergency with press censorship, the arrests of opposition leaders, and the suspension of many fundamental human rights of Indian citizens.

The abuses of Emergency triggered a mass resistance and the rapid growth of volunteers and political support to the Hindutva ideology. This new national political party relied on the Hindutva ideology-based rural and urban grassroots organisations that had rapidly grown across India from the mids.

The RSS established a number of affiliate organisations after Indian Independence to carry its ideology to various parts of the society. Prominent among them is the Vishva Hindu Parishad, which was set up in with the objective of protecting and promoting the Hindu religion.

It subscribed to Hindutva ideology, which came to mean in its hands political Hinduism and Hindu militancy. A number of political developments in the s caused a sense of vulnerability among the Hindus in India. This was much discussed and leveraged by the Hindutva ideology organisations.

These developments include the mass killing of the Hindus by the militant Khalistan movement , the influx of undocumented Bangladeshi immigration into Assam coupled with the expulsion of Hindus from Bangladesh, the Congress-led government's pro-Muslim bias in the Shah Bano case as well as the Rushdie affair.

The BJP claims that Hindutva represents "cultural nationalism" and its conception of "Indian nationhood", but not a religious or theocratic concept. According to the Anthropologist and South Asia Politics scholar Thomas Hansen, Hindutva in the post-Independence era, has emerged as a political ideology and a populist form of Hindu nationalism.

The political speeches and publications by Indian Muslim leaders have declared their "Islamic religious identity" being greater than any "political ideology or national identity".

These developments, states Hansen, have helped Hindu nationalists spread essentialist constructions per contemporary Hindutva ideology. Golwalkar , one of the proponents of Hindutva, believed that India's diversity in terms of customs, traditions and ways of worship was its uniqueness and that this diversity was not without the strong underlying cultural basis which was essentially native. He believed that the Hindu natives with all their diversity, shared among other things "the same philosophy of life", "the same values" and "the same aspirations" which formed a strong cultural and a civilizational basis for a nation.

Savarkar similarly believed that the Indian subcontinent, which included the area south of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush , or " Akhand Bharat " is the homeland of the Hindus. He considered as Hindus those who consider India to be their motherland, fatherland and holy land, hence describing it purely in cultural terms. RSS, one of the main votaries of Hindutva, has stated that it believes in a cultural connotation of the term Hindu.

The term as a cultural concept will include and did always include all including Sikhs, Buddhists, and Jains. The cultural nationality of India, in the conviction of the RSS, is Hindu and it was inclusive of all who are born and who have adopted Bharat as their Motherland, including Muslims , Christians and Parsis. The answering association submits that it is not just a matter of RSS conviction, but a fact borne out by history that the Muslims, Christians and Parsis too are Hindus by culture although as religions they are not so.

The Hindutva leaders have sought a Uniform Civil Code for all the citizens of India, where the same law applies to all its citizens irrespective of the individual's religion. The Uniform Civil Code is opposed by the Muslim leaders. Followers of Hindutva have questioned differential religious laws in India which allows polygamy and "triple talaq" divorce among Muslims and thereby compromises on the status of Muslim women and "marginalises" them.

The followers of Hindutva are known for their criticism of the Indian government as too passive with regard to the ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Hindus by Kashmiri Muslim separatists and the Wandhama massacre , and advocates of Hindutva wish a harder stance in Jammu and Kashmir.

The supporters of Hindutva sought to protect the native Hindu culture and traditions especially those that symbolised the Hindu culture. They believe that Indian culture is identical with the Hindu culture. They opposed the continuation of Urdu being used as a vernacular language as they associated it with Muslims.

They felt that Urdu symbolised a foreign culture. For them, Hindi alone was the unifying factor for all the diverse forces in the country.

It even wanted to make Hindi as the official language of India and felt that it should be promoted at the expense of English and the other regional languages. However, this caused a state of tension and alarm in the non-Hindi regions. The non-Hindi regions saw it as an attempt by the north to dominate the rest of the country. Eventually, this demand was put down in order to protect the cultural diversity of the country. Attempts have been made to revive and promote Hindu science particularly in the fields of indigenous medicine, especially Ayurveda.

This revivalist movement in medicine was predominantly a result to the emergence of Hindu nationalism in the s. Most nationalists are organised into political, cultural and social organisations using the concept of Hindutva as a political tool.

The first Hindutva organisation formed was the RSS, founded in Other organisations include:. The Shiromani Akali Dal is a Sikh religious party that maintains ties with Hindutva organisations and political parties, as they also represent Sikhism.

An editorial published on 4 February , for example, in the National Herald , an Indian newspaper linked to the Indian National Congress party, stated that "it https://stpetersnt.org/rss.xml seems to embody Hinduism in a Nazi form" with the recommendation that it must be ended. The Indian Marxist economist and political commentator Prabhat Patnaik calls Hindutva "almost fascist in the classical sense".

He states that the Hindutva movement is based on "class support, methods and programme". According to Jeffrelot, the early Hindutva proponents such as Golwalkar envisioned it as an extreme form of "ethnic nationalism", but the ideology differed from fascism and Nazism in three respects.

Second, while fascism emphasised the primacy of the state, Hindutva considered the state to be a secondary. Third, while Nazism emphasised primacy of the race, the Hindutva ideology emphasised primacy of the society over race. Hindu nationalism, states Vanaik, is "a specific Indian manifestation of a generic phenomenon [of nationalism] but not one that belongs to the genus of fascism".

Hindutva and National Renaissance

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Hindutva transl. Hinduness is the predominant form of Hindu nationalism in India. The Hindutva movement has been described as a variant of "right-wing extremism" [5] and as "almost fascist in the classical sense", adhering to a concept of homogenised majority and cultural hegemony. Hindutva was mainstreamed into Indian politics with Narendra Modi 's election as Prime Minister in Sindh ; gradually extended by Persians, Greeks, and Arabs, to northern India as a whole. According to Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions , Hindutva is a concept of "Indian cultural, national, and religious identity". Some Indians insist, however, that Hindutva is primarily a cultural term to refer to the traditional and indigenous heritage of the Indian nation-state, and they compare the relationship between Hindutva and India to that of Zionism and Israel.

The party has enjoyed broad support among members of the higher castes and in northern India. It has attempted to attract support from lower castes, particularly through the appointment of several lower-caste members to prominent party positions. The BJS advocated the rebuilding of India in accordance with Hindu culture and called for the formation of a strong unified state. Ten years later the party, led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee , joined three other political parties to form the Janata Party and took over the reins of government. Plagued by factionalism and internal disputes, however, the government collapsed in July

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  • Rosie P. 26.04.2021 at 16:04

    Hindutva or Hinduness, the author defines, is a collective mindset that identifies India as the motherland from the Himalayas to the Indian Ocean.


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