what is network topology and types of topology pdf

What is network topology and types of topology pdf

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What is a Topology?

network topology advantages and disadvantages pdf

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What is a Topology?

The configuration, or topology, of a network is key to determining its performance. Network topology is the way a network is arranged, including the physical or logical description of how links and nodes are set up to relate to each other. There are numerous ways a network can be arranged, all with different pros and cons, and some are more useful in certain circumstances than others.

Admins have a range of options when it comes to choosing a network topology, and this decision must account for the size and scale of their business, its goals, and budget. Several tasks go into effective network topology management, including configuration management, visual mapping, and general performance monitoring.

The key is to understand your objectives and requirements to create and manage the network topology in the right way for your business.

Following an in-depth network topology definition, this article will look at the main types of network topologies, their benefits and drawbacks, and considerations for determining which one is best for your business.

What Is Network Topology? Why is Network Topology Important? Types of Network Topology. Network topology refers to how various nodes, devices, and connections on your network are physically or logically arranged in relation to each other. Think of your network as a city, and the topology as the road map.

Just as there are many ways to arrange and maintain a city—such as making sure the avenues and boulevards can facilitate passage between the parts of town getting the most traffic—there are several ways to arrange a network. Each has advantages and disadvantages and depending on the needs of your company, certain arrangements can give you a greater degree of connectivity and security.

There are two approaches to network topology: physical and logical. Physical network topology, as the name suggests, refers to the physical connections and interconnections between nodes and the network—the wires, cables, and so forth.

Logical network topology is a little more abstract and strategic, referring to the conceptual understanding of how and why the network is arranged the way it is, and how data moves through it. The layout of your network is important for several reasons. Above all, it plays an essential role in how and how well your network functions. A streamlined and properly managed network topology can increase energy and data efficiency, which can in turn help to reduce operational and maintenance costs.

The design and structure of a network are usually shown and manipulated in a software-created network topology diagram. These diagrams are essential for a few reasons, but especially for how they can provide visual representations of both physical and logical layouts, allowing administrators to see the connections between devices when troubleshooting. The way a network is arranged can make or break network functionality, connectivity, and protection from downtime.

Effective network management and monitoring require a strong grasp of both the physical and logical topology of a network to ensure your network is efficient and healthy. Building a local area network LAN topology can be make-or-break for your business, as you want to set up a resilient, secure, and easy-to-maintain topology.

There are several different types of network topology and all are suitable for different purposes, depending on the overall network size and your objectives. A star topology, the most common network topology, is laid out so every node in the network is directly connected to one central hub via coaxial, twisted-pair, or fiber-optic cable. Acting as a server, this central node manages data transmission—as information sent from any node on the network has to pass through the central one to reach its destination—and functions as a repeater, which helps prevent data loss.

Star topologies are common since they allow you to conveniently manage your entire network from a single location. Because each of the nodes is independently connected to the central hub, should one go down, the rest of the network will continue functioning unaffected, making the star topology a stable and secure network layout.

Additionally, devices can be added, removed, and modified without taking the entire network offline. On the physical side of things, the structure of the star topology uses relatively little cabling to fully connect the network, which allows for both straightforward setup and management over time as the network expands or contracts.

Bus topologies are a good, cost-effective choice for smaller networks because the layout is simple, allowing all devices to be connected via a single coaxial or RJ45 cable. If needed, more nodes can be easily added to the network by joining additional cables. If the cable experiences a failure, the whole network goes down, which can be time-consuming and expensive to restore, which can be less of an issue with smaller networks. Ring topology is where nodes are arranged in a circle or ring.

The data can travel through the ring network in either one direction or both directions, with each device having exactly two neighbors. Since each device is only connected to the ones on either side, when data is transmitted, the packets also travel along the circle, moving through each of the intermediate nodes until they arrive at their destination. If a large network is arranged in a ring topology, repeaters can be used to ensure packets arrive correctly and without data loss.

Only one station on the network is permitted to send data at a time, which greatly reduces the risk of packet collisions, making ring topologies efficient at transmitting data without errors.

By and large, ring topologies are cost-effective and inexpensive to install, and the intricate point-to-point connectivity of the nodes makes it relatively easy to identify issues or misconfigurations on the network. Since the flow of data transmission moves unidirectionally between nodes along each ring, if one node goes down, it can take the entire network with it.

The question of scalability should also be taken into consideration. In a ring topology, all the devices on the network share bandwidth, so the addition of more devices can contribute to overall communication delays.

Additionally, the entire network must be taken offline to reconfigure, add, or remove nodes. A network with ring topology is half-duplex, meaning data can only move in one direction at a time. Ring topologies can be made full-duplex by adding a second connection between network nodes, creating a dual ring topology.

The primary advantage of dual ring topology is its efficiency: because each node has two connections on either side, information can be sent both clockwise and counterclockwise along the network. The secondary ring included in a dual-ring topology setup can act as a redundant layer and backup, which helps solve for many of the disadvantages of traditional ring topology.

Dual ring topologies offer a little extra security, too: if one ring fails within a node, the other ring is still able to send data. The tree topology structure gets its name from how the central node functions as a sort of trunk for the network, with nodes extending outward in a branch-like fashion. However, where each node in a star topology is directly connected to the central hub, a tree topology has a parent-child hierarchy to how the nodes are connected. Those connected to the central hub are connected linearly to other nodes, so two connected nodes only share one mutual connection.

Combining elements of the star and bus topologies allows for the easy addition of nodes and network expansion. Troubleshooting errors on the network is also a straightforward process, as each of the branches can be individually assessed for performance issues. As with the star topology, the entire network depends on the health of the root node in a tree topology structure.

Should the central hub fail, the various node branches will become disconnected, though connectivity within—but not between—branch systems will remain. Because of the hierarchical complexity and linear structure of the network layout, adding more nodes to a tree topology can quickly make proper management an unwieldy, not to mention costly, experience. Tree topologies are expensive because of the sheer amount of cabling required to connect each device to the next within the hierarchical layout.

A mesh topology is an intricate and elaborate structure of point-to-point connections where the nodes are interconnected. Mesh networks can be full or partial mesh. Partial mesh topologies are mostly interconnected, with a few nodes with only two or three connections, while full-mesh topologies are—surprise!

The web-like structure of mesh topologies offers two different methods of data transmission: routing and flooding. When data is routed, the nodes use logic to determine the shortest distance from the source to destination, and when data is flooded, the information is sent to all nodes within the network without the need for routing logic.

Mesh topologies are reliable and stable, and the complex degree of interconnectivity between nodes makes the network resistant to failure. For instance, no single device going down can bring the network offline. Mesh topologies are incredibly labor-intensive.

Each interconnection between nodes requires a cable and configuration once deployed, so it can also be time-consuming to set up. As with other topology structures, the cost of cabling adds up fast, and to say mesh networks require a lot of cabling is an understatement. Hybrid topologies combine two or more different topology structures—the tree topology is a good example, integrating the bus and star layouts. Hybrid structures are most commonly found in larger companies where individual departments have personalized network topologies adapted to suit their needs and network usage.

However, each type of network topology comes with its own disadvantages, and as a network grows in complexity, so too does the experience and know-how required on the part of the admins to keep everything functioning optimally.

No network topology is perfect, or even inherently better than the others, so determining the right structure for your business will depend on the needs and size of your network. Here are the key elements to consider:.

The bus and star topologies are on the simpler side of things, both being fairly lightweight, while mesh networks are much more cable- and labor-intensive. Coaxial and twisted-pair cables both use insulated copper or copper-based wiring, while fiber-optic cables are made from thin and pliable plastic or glass tubes.

Twisted-pair cables are cost-effective but have less bandwidth than coaxial cables. Fiber-optic cables are high performing and can transmit data far faster than twisted-pair or coaxial cables, but they also tend to be far more expensive to install, because they require additional components like optical receivers.

Determining the right topology for your needs, then, is a matter of striking the right balance between installation and operating costs and the level of performance you require from the network. The last element to consider is scalability. Star topologies are so common because they allow you to add, remove, and alter nodes with minimal disruption to the rest of the network. Ring networks, on the other hand, have to be taken entirely offline for any changes to be made to any of the nodes.

They allow you to see how the information will move across the network, which, in turn, allows you to predict potential choke points. Visual representation makes it easier to create a streamlined and efficient network design, while also acting as a good reference point if you find yourself needing to troubleshoot errors. There are a few network topology mapping products on the market. First, consider using a network configuration management tool.

This kind of tool can help you configure your network correctly and automate repetitive tasks to take the pressure off the network administrator. As your organization or network grows, the network topology may become more layered or more complex, and it can become harder to deploy configurations across the entire network with certainty.

However, with configuration management tools, the complicated network topology is no issue: tools can usually auto-detect each node on the network, allowing you to deploy standard configurations that may be required for compliance reasons, or flag any configurations outside what is expected. Network configuration management tools can also highlight vulnerabilities, so you can correct these issues and keep your network more secure. Finally, these kinds of tools should also display the lifecycle of the devices on your network, alerting you to devices coming to their end-of-service or end-of-life points, so you can replace them before problems begin to arise.

You should use network management software to track overall performance. A performance manager can keep track of network issues, outages, and performance issues.

A performance management tool will also have the functionality to set network performance baselines and establish a clear picture of how your network typically behaves when healthy. Then, by setting alerts when your network performs unexpectedly or outside of these baselines, you can quickly track, pinpoint, and troubleshoot issues.

With complex network topologies, it may be hard to figure out exactly which part of the network is having issues. Some performance managers will create a visual display of your network topology, so you can see the entire network in a one-map overview. This can show you how your network is laid out, bring your attention to changes in the topology, and flag where problems are arising. To get started understanding your network topology, you can try a tool like Network Topology Mapper free for 14 days.

network topology advantages and disadvantages pdf

The configuration, or topology, of a network is key to determining its performance. Network topology is the way a network is arranged, including the physical or logical description of how links and nodes are set up to relate to each other. There are numerous ways a network can be arranged, all with different pros and cons, and some are more useful in certain circumstances than others. Admins have a range of options when it comes to choosing a network topology, and this decision must account for the size and scale of their business, its goals, and budget. Several tasks go into effective network topology management, including configuration management, visual mapping, and general performance monitoring. The key is to understand your objectives and requirements to create and manage the network topology in the right way for your business.

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Now, let us discuss about the basic terminology involved in this network topology. Network topology is also called as Graph theory. Like it?

Why Is Network Topology Important?

Network topologies describe the methods in which all the elements of a network are mapped. The topology term refers to both the physical and logical layout of a network. In this network topology tutorial, we will explain: What is Topology? Types of Networking Topologies Two main types of networking topologies are 1 Physical topology 2 Logical topology Physical topology: This type of network is an actual layout of the computer cables and other network devices Logical topology: Logical topology gives insight's about network's physical design. In this method, the network consists of a direct link between two computers. P2P Topology Diagram Advantages: This is faster and highly reliable than other types of connections since there is a direct connection. No need for a network operating system Does not need an expensive server as individual workstations are used to access the files No need for any dedicated network technicians because each user sets their permissions Disadvantages: The biggest drawback is that it only be used for small areas where computers are in close proximity.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Network Topologies A network topology refers to the way in which nodes in a network are connected to one another. The other nodes on the system cannot connect to one another except through the hub. If one link becomes unavailable, it does not affect the entire network. To get Configuration and installation for hybrid topology required to be much efficient. It has better performance in bigger networks with heavy traffic because of token passing. Essentially, it is the topological structure of a network, and may be depicted physically or logically.

What Is Network Topology? Best Guide to Types and Diagrams

This multiple choice questions and answers type Data Communication and Networking Online Test section contains all the suitable and related MCQs of the Network topology ie eight basic topologies: point-to-point, bus, star, ring or circular, mesh, tree, hybrid, or daisy chain Only.

3 comments

  • Thersorelan 19.04.2021 at 18:02

    Your email address will not be published.

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  • Melinda B. 23.04.2021 at 23:48

    Topology is derived from two Greek words topo and logy, where topo means 'place' and logy means 'study'.

    Reply
  • Г‰tienne L. 24.04.2021 at 01:32

    What is a Topology? Network topologies describe the ways in which the elements of a network are mapped. They describe the physical and logical arrangement.

    Reply

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