inhibitors and uncouplers of electron transport chain pdf

Inhibitors and uncouplers of electron transport chain pdf

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5.2: Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation

Chemiosmotic model

References

Boogerd, K. Appeldoorn, A. Gaschromatographic analysis shows that whole cells of Paracoccus denitrificans produce dinitrogen in the absence and nitrous oxide in the presence of thiocyanate during nitrate reduction. NADH nitrate reductase activity in vesicles is much more sensitive to thiocyanate than either NADH oxidase activity in vesicles or reduction of nitrate by endogenous substrates in whole cells. Production of nitrous oxide from nitrate in cells is completely inhibited by the simultaneous presence of thiocyanate and Triton X

5.2: Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation

In eukaryotic cells, the vast majority of ATP synthesis occurs in the mitochondria in a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Even plants, which generate ATP by photophosphorylation in chloroplasts, contain mitochondria for the synthesis of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation is linked to a process known as electron transport Figure 5. The electron transport system, located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, transfers electrons donated by the reduced electron carriers NADH and FADH2 obtained from glycolysis, the citric acid cycle or fatty acid oxidation through a series of electrons acceptors, to oxygen. In this way, the oxidation of sugars and fatty acids is coupled to the synthesis of ATP, effectively extracting energy from food. Peter Mitchell introduced a radical proposal in to explain the mechanism by which mitochondria make ATP. It is known as the chemiosmotic hypothesis and has been shown over the years to be correct.

Author s : Peter Kovacic , Robert S. DOI : The biology of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is summarized. Our approach to the mechanism of uncouplers, inhibitors, and toxins is based on electron transfer ET and reactive oxygen species ROS. Extensive supporting evidence, which is broadly applicable, is cited. ROS can be generated either endogenously or exogenously.

Chemiosmotic model

In eukaryotic cells, the vast majority of ATP synthesis occurs in the mitochondria in a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Even plants, which generate ATP by photophosphorylation in chloroplasts, contain mitochondria for the synthesis of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation is linked to a process known as electron transport Figure 5. The electron transport system, located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, transfers electrons donated by the reduced electron carriers NADH and FADH2 obtained from glycolysis, the citric acid cycle or fatty acid oxidation through a series of electrons acceptors, to oxygen. In this way, the oxidation of sugars and fatty acids is coupled to the synthesis of ATP, effectively extracting energy from food. Peter Mitchell introduced a radical proposal in to explain the mechanism by which mitochondria make ATP. It is known as the chemiosmotic hypothesis and has been shown over the years to be correct.

The ability to harness energy from external sources and utilize it for biological work is characteristic of all living organisms. Phototrophs harvest the energy of light Plants. Chemotrophs harvest energy from the oxidation of fuel molecules. The oxidation of foodstuffs occurs in three stages. For example, proteins are digested to amino acids and Polysaccharides are into monosaccharides , etc. This is called Primary Metabolism.

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Inhibitors & Uncouplers The electron transport chain was determined by studying the effects of Antimycin A1 is an antibiotic that inhibits electron transfer​.


References

A new inhibitor of photoreactions in chloroplasts, 2,3-dimethyl 5-dybroxy 6-phytol benzoquinone is shown to be an electron transfer inhibitor which blocks both cyclic and non-cyclic electron flow. Basal levels of electron transport from reduced dichlorophenol-indophenol to methyl viologen are not affected by the inhibitor, but uncoupler stimulated electron transport in the same system is inhibited. It is concluded that reduced dichlorophenol-indophenol can be oxidized by the photosynthetic electron transport chain in isolated chloroplasts at two sites: site I proximal to P and site II distal to P Site I has a low affinity for the electron donor.

Chemiosmotic model

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