group as a medium of learning development and change pdf file

Group as a medium of learning development and change pdf file

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Evolution of machine learning

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Sign in. It is widely used across enterprises, in government offices, healthcare and other industries. As a result, there is a large body of unstructured data that exists in PDF format and to extract and analyse this data to generate meaningful insights is a common task among data scientists. I work for a financial institution a n d recently came across a situation where we had to extract data from a large volume of PDF forms. While there is a good body of work available to describe simple text extraction from PDF documents, I struggled to find a comprehensive guide to extract data from PDF forms.

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Some students were able to access the Internet to do so, but not all. The majority of students around the world, who have access to smartphones, are able to use these as learning devices. Others are more fortunate and have tablets, laptops or desktops. Their instructors, some with no previous experience of teaching online or at a distance, discovered new approaches to teaching and learning and imaginative work was undertaken to overcome the very real challenges this current reality gives rise to.

Faculty are exploring what online teaching reality means for them. What is the new pedagogy of online teaching at scale really like? What does engaged learning look like in this new environment?

How can online learning produce outstanding learning experiences? At first, many faculty sought to replicate online what they normally do in a classroom. They soon discovered this was not a strategy that was practical, as not all students could access synchronous classes reliably and many had challenges, such as other siblings or parents needing access to the technology, the costs of broadband Internet access exceeding their ability to pay, or were in different time zones.

Nor was it efficient. In fact, what faculty began to discover is what has been known for some time. Faculty began to experiment with personal challenges, small group work, project-based learning and the recording of short videos. They began to explore pedagogy, the science and art of instruction based on design. Faculty sought help from colleagues with previous experience teaching online, looking for evidence for what worked in their discipline.

They were inspired by examples for creative arts and music, where Zoom rehearsals and performances produced remarkable and life-changing events. Some discovered open education resources, materials, labs, videos, simulations, games, that helped them find new ways of engaging their online learners. What is clear is major changes, in the way we teach post-secondary students, are triggered by the sudden immersion of many into online learning as a result of COVID and the new technologies that increase flexibility in, and access to, post-secondary education.

Indeed, we can already see institutions exploring the implications of these developments for program and course delivery beyond the pandemic. In looking at what is being learned and the implications for students, faculty, staff, and institutions, we highlight:.

This consideration of how technology is changing the way we teach and learn, leading to the emergence of a new pedagogy, continues to be the most popular feature on teachonline. This revised and updated version is intended to offer new angles and resources to readers and inspire new approaches.

As the literature documenting examples of success in online learning during the pandemic emerges, new contributions will appear on teachonline. But before we explore the specifics, it is helpful to understand context. The current and sudden exposure of so many to online teaching as a result of the pandemic accelerated developments already occurring. Changes in society, student expectations, and technology were already motivating university and college faculty and instructors to rethink pedagogy and teaching methods before the pandemic.

Canada has thousands of online courses and programs — there are 20, online college and university courses for credit in Ontario alone. Their number has been steadily growing since , when the first fully online graduate degree programs were launched in Canada. Now online programs and courses are seen as strategic investments by colleges and universities eager to increase access and flexible learning routes for their programs and students.

There are a number of separate factors at work in the knowledge-based society. The first is the continuing development of new knowledge, making it difficult to compress all students need to know within the limited time span of a post-secondary program or course. This means helping students to manage knowledge - how to find, analyze, evaluate, and apply knowledge as it constantly shifts and grows.

To put this is context, between and the number of academic papers published world-wide doubled and have doubled again between and There are now over 1.

The second factor is the increased emphasis on applying knowledge to meet the demands of 21st century society, using skills such as critical thinking, independent learning, the use of relevant information technology, software, and data within a discipline, and entrepreneurialism.

The development of such skills requires active learning in rich and complex environments, with plenty of opportunities to develop, apply, assess and practice such skills. Thirdly, it means educating students with the skills to manage their own learning throughout life, so they can continue to learn after graduation.

Life-long learning, especially given expectations about rapid developments impacting the future of work, is now an imperative of governments around the world committing to developing a skilled workforce. With the pandemic likely to induce a global recession, demonstrable and certifiable skills will become key to securing and retaining work.

Student demographics have been changing for some considerable time — more mature students, more students combining work and study, more students looking for flexible learning options. While school leavers are still an important segment of the college and university student body, they no longer are the dominant drivers of the strategies pursued by the institutions which look to broader markets, especially international markets. Even the most idealistic students expect to find good jobs after several years of study, jobs where they can apply their learning and earn a reasonable income.

This is especially true as tuition and other educational costs increase. Students expect to be actively engaged in and see the relevance of their learning to the real world. Almost all college students are studying work-related programs. Today's students grew up in a world where technology is a natural part of their environment. Their expectation is that technology is used whenever appropriate to help them learn, develop essential informational and technological literacy skills, and master the fluency necessary in their specific subject domain.

Blended and online learning are a feature of most strategic plans for colleges, universities and polytechnics. The plans have been given a new emphasis as the pandemic forced online learning everywhere. Continuing advances in digital technologies, social media, and mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets, give the end user, the student, much more control over access to and the creation and sharing of knowledge.

This empowers students, and faculty and instructors are finding ways to leverage this enhanced student control to increase their motivation and engagement.

More recently, developments in artificial intelligence for teaching and learning , virtual and augmented reality and simulations and serious games have further emphasized the importance of technology enabled learning.

Already, micro-credentials are being seen as a response to this challenge. Work will change significantly over the coming decade. Recent innovations and developments in flexible, competency based learning and assessment will give new impetus to online learning and work-related skill development. As faculty and instructors become more familiar with digital technologies for teaching and learning, pedagogical responses and strategies are emerging.

The seven developments listed below impacted on how teaching is structured and how and where learning happens. Until recently, there was a clear dichotomy between classroom-based teaching, often supplemented by technologies, a learning management system, and digital resources, and fully online teaching, in which an entire course is provided online.

Now there is a much closer integration of classroom and online teaching under the generic term of blended or hybrid learning, where classroom time is reduced but not eliminated, with substantial time being used for online learning. Classroom time is spent on interaction among students and with the instructor, whether through discussion, problem-solving, case studies, practical exercises, or lab work. Materials are often designed to be used after class for review and assignments.

Successful blended teaching and learning require a focus on what may best be done on campus, such as face-to-face interaction between students and instructors, and what may best be done online, such as providing flexibility and wide access to resources and experts.

This requires a re-thinking of teaching and learning practice, as well as classroom layouts, as more interaction takes place, involving the students, instructors, and outside experts who participate in-person or virtually. Teaching models for both classroom and online delivery must be reconsidered and recalibrated in response to new technological capacities. From the early days of online learning, there was an emphasis on enabling students to construct knowledge through questioning , discussion, sharing of perspectives and sources, analysis of resources from multiple sources, and instructor feedback.

Social media encouraged the development of communities of practice , where students share experiences, discuss theories and challenges, and learn from each other. The professor is no longer responsible for delivering all of the knowledge or even providing all of the sources for learning — but maintains a critical role as guide, facilitator, and assessor of the learning.

Some instructors encourage contributions and reflections from the wider public, to accompany formal courses that are 'private' to enrolled students, thus opening up courses to external expertise, and providing students with important contacts and networks outside the institution. Most instructors have not experienced learning, much less teaching, in such collaborative environments, especially when facilitated through technology. It requires a re-consideration of roles, authority, and how learning is achieved and measured.

Known as the community of inquiry model, it has garnered a lot of attention and is now an embedded idea in instructional design. It is built on a simple principle: the more engaged learners are with their learning, the more likely they are to be successful. There are now many thousands of examples of stand-alone, open educational resources that can be downloaded free for educational use.

OER can be provided as core course content, or specifically targeted to helping students who struggle to keep up or have not fully mastered key concepts or techniques. OER also appeal to an increasingly large group of students, inside and outside post-secondary education, who are interested in a topic, but don't want to enrol in a formal program or course. Since we began capturing innovative developments a decade ago, OER has become a major resource for rapid course development and for lowering the costs of learning for many students.

Even text books are changing to incorporate video and audio clips, animations and rich graphics, as well as becoming more interactive, allowing both instructors and students to annotate, add or change material including assessment exercises and feedback. These electronic texts are, of course, accessible via mobile smartphones, tablets, e-readers and other mobile devices. Using multimedia for education is not new, but, with the internet, the selection and integration of appropriate sources — by both instructors and students — raises questions of quality, timely and appropriate usage, multiple points of view, and packaging of a wide range of resources within the framework of course-specific learning objectives and assessment practices.

Balancing the use of multimedia and open educational resources with instructor-delivered content raises issues of course ownership and measurable learning outcomes. Students can now access a variety of content, free of charge, from multiple sources via the internet. They can choose alternative interpretations, areas of interest, and even sources of accreditation. Students have tools, such as smartphones and video cameras, to collect digital examples and data can be edited and used in student work.

Thus, strictly managing a set curriculum in terms of limited content chosen by the instructor becomes less meaningful. The emphasis shifts to deciding what is important or relevant within a subject domain. Students within any single 'class' are likely to have multiple needs. Within the framework of the learning objectives, more flexible approaches to content choice, delivery, assessment, and other factors are emerging.

Equally important is educating students to take responsibility for their own learning and approach this as a skill to be taught and learned. This approach challenges the instructor to move away from selecting and transmitting information in large blocks or chunks, such as a one-hour lecture, or providing a single textbook, to guiding students to find, analyze, evaluate, and apply information relevant to a particular subject domain. This 'relevance' becomes more negotiated between instructor and student.

Indeed, the term 'instructor' becomes misleading in this context, as the role moves more to that of facilitator with less control over where and how learning takes place, and often entering into negotiation over exactly what the content is.

These smaller modules fit the needs of many full-time students who are working part-time, as well as those needing greater flexibility or additional help with their learning. There is growing demand from students for short, 'just in time' learning modules that fit an immediate learning need. The creation and aggregation of these modules for credit requires reconsideration of course structure and the crediting of learning that is not equivalent to a full course completion.

In the evolving world of open access to learning, students who successfully complete such modules may be awarded ' badges ' or microcredentials , with the possibility of credit transferred at a later time into a more formal program. For example, a continuing education microcredit may be transferred as an elective course into a graduate degree. Mobile learning , with smartphones, tablets and other devices, is the basis of the anywhere, anytime learning provided through online learning.

Offering content, quizzes, multimedia resources, and connections among students using mobile devices requires a new look at course design, content packaging, and a consideration of limitations of data packages. How to best integrate mobile devices into course delivery and assessment is a field of continuing exploration.

Evolution of machine learning

Secondary School Books Pdf School pu rchasers m ay ma ke co pies for us e by staff an d students. Lists of suggested titles and requirements vary widely according to school, grade and course level, but there is a common goal: to cultivate a lifelong love of books. Browse categories to find your favorite literature genres: Romance. Although the format for books, journal articles, magazine articles and other media is similar, there are some slight differences. Secondary School Books Pdf. Secondary Curriculum The Secondary Education in Uganda is a six year cycle from Senior one to Senior six having learners with average age between 14 years and 19 years. Reception at primary school Recommended books for starting school.

Learn and easily understand concepts from online video lectures by experienced and qualified teachers of India. Each of the subjects has different textbooks, according to their syllabus. So download pdf file of Maharashtra 10th Board Syllabus pdf. You can print them out for offline reading. All Maharashtra universities are likely to postpone the final exams in the state till at least May 15 as per reports. It is established under the "Maharashtra Secondary Boards Act" amended in NDA syllabus of each topic is given below.

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See how Citi is taking steps to help mitigate the effects of the pandemic, from helping clients to providing relief through funds to frontline healthcare workers, organizations such as No Kid Hungry and more. Recognizing that "the climate crisis is among the top critical challenges facing our global society and economy," on her first day as Citi's CEO, Jane Fraser announces, "We are committing to net zero greenhouse gas emissions by At Citi, we're focused on finding ways to take care of our colleagues and their families, and we're thrilled to be part of this groundbreaking effort. Bush, who shared stories of important women in her life.

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We help your best coders learn the technologies and skills they need to grow into effective team leaders. We track the experts on the edges of emerging technology, then share their insights in ways that make it easy for your team to get the most relevant knowledge—and act on it. We can help yours, too. Your teams can benefit from that experience. With interactive learning, teams get hands-on experience with tech like Kubernetes, Python, Docker, Java, and more—in safe live dev environments.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. In this chapter we discuss implications of new knowledge about learning for the design of learning environments, especially schools. Learning theory does not provide a simple recipe for designing effective learning environments; similarly, physics constrains but does not dictate how to build a bridge e. Nevertheless, new developments in the science of learning raise important questions about the design of learning environments—questions that suggest the value of rethinking what is taught, how it is taught, and how it is assessed.

In this article, we will explain what a training needs analysis is, provide a template for conducting this analysis, and give a training needs analysis example. Contents What is a training needs analysis? Training needs analysis best practices Training needs analysis template Training needs analysis for individuals Training needs analysis questions Conclusion FAQ. A training needs analysis or TNA always happens for a reason. The need for such analysis usually arises due to an organizational problem. This can be a lower than expected quarter for the sales team, changing technology threatening to impact the continuity of train operators, or constantly low customer satisfaction scores forcing the product team to work in a more agile and customer-focused way. In all these instances, the problems can potentially be resolved through training.

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This book contains chapters 1 to Take a closer look at the chapters in this NCERT book for Class 8 English to understand what each chapter has to offer in terms of knowledge and information. Literacy is at the core of a healthy community, so we unite with partners to enable all families to read with their young children.


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This document has been reproduced as received from Readings from Play as a medium for learning and development / edited by Doris Bergen. the side of a change in the play/work balance throughout the human life span. For adults patterns, gradually inviting children to join a small group involved in new activities.