File Name: data collection in sociolinguistics methods and applications .zip
The University of South Carolina. Departmental Teaching Award.
Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Use of Corpora. The guidelines focus on two main research paradigms related to sociolinguistic research, namely quantitative analysis related to the variationist tradition and quali- tative analysis related to the ethnographic tradition. The study guide intends to sup- port in-class activities, as well as to serve as a source for independent study. It does not, however, aim to substitute existing materials textbooks and handbooks devoted to research methods , rather complement them by adding, where relevant, references to sociolinguistic research in the Baltics.
As such, this study guide should only be considered as a work in progress. The guidelines consist of 14 chapters. Each chapter presents and elaborates on a different aspect of sociolinguistic research i. The first five chapters introduce key concepts and definitions related to research in general research methods, research design, data, ethical issues , while the remaining nine chapters focus on different research methods applied in sociolinguistic research e.
All chapters follow the same structure. First, students are introduced to key concepts related to the topic. Key concepts are followed by a pre-reading activity and then a discussion of the key issues on the topic. Where relevant, the discussion is supported by examples and case studies.
Each chapter con- tains comprehension activities with answers at the end : some of these activities are intended for independent study, some for in-class activities. Group discussions are strongly encouraged. At the end of the chapter we provide students with a glossary and a list of cited material for further reference. Key concepts Dependent variable Empirical research Experimental research Experimental stimuli Field work Hypothesis Independent variable Non-experimental research Observation Qualitative methods Quantitative methods Triangulation 1.
Pre-reading activity Activity 1. In groups discuss the concepts given above. Which concepts are you aware of? How would you define them in your own words? Research methods in sociolinguistics The main aim of this chapter is to equip you with key concepts and paradigms related to the research methods used when analyzing sociolinguistic phenomena.
In the following chapters we will analyze these research paradigms in more detail. Sociolinguistics investigates how people use language in different environments. It attempts to link patterns of language use to some kind of non-linguistic reality — that is, to things like class, gender, racial or ethnic identification, gang affiliation, and oth- er.
In order to investigate these phenomena one needs to have reliable research tech- niques. For instance, sociolinguists interested in the variation of a certain phonological feature across different social classes will depend on the quantitative methods used in variationist sociolinguistics, while sociolinguists interested in the code-switching practices among the bilingual Estonian speech community members might depend on the qualitative methods used in ethnographic research. Some re- search questions might require the application of different research methods.
This approach is called a mixed-method approach or triangulation. This research technique was highly elaborated by its pioneer William Labov, as well as later by Peter Trudgill, Sali Tagliamonte, and many others; b.
The variationist tradition evolved over the past five decades as a discipline that in- tegrates social and linguistic aspects of language Tagliamonte Kindle Location Variationist sociolinguistics relies on several concepts Tagliamonte : a. In other words, it is different ways of saying more or less the same thing, e.
The social constructivist tradition presupposes that everything around us has been constructed by the societies in which they appear Irwin Most of the social constructivist tradition in sociolinguistics is related to a theme of identity.
Social constructivists wanted to shift the focus from the language system structure, e. Thus, sociolinguists working in the social constructivist light are usually preoccupied with the study of construction of gender, ethnicity, national identity, minority languages; childhood and adolescent identity, and other Irwin In terms of identity construction, the work of Erving Goffman is of importance to sociolinguistic research.
Goffman views social interaction in terms of a dra- matic performance and therefore implies that identity is also an ongoing interac- tive construction rather than something given Irwin On the other hand, many other poststructuralist theorists Michel Foucault, Pierre Bourdieu, Mikhail Bakhtin, Edward Said among others influenced the interpretation para- digms in sociolinguistic research.
The ethnographic approach is not specific just to sociolinguistics; it is used widely in other social sciences, especially anthropological research. In the study of language, ethnography was introduced by Dell Hymes in s. Linguistic anthropology some perceive it as a branch of sociolin- guistics mainly deals with the issues of ethnography of communication.
Over the past decades ethnographic description became one of the most important field methods in sociolinguistics Wolfram Monica Heller, one of the key sociolinguists, who had extensively conducted ethnographic studies, explains, that ethnographies aim to discover how people use language, what they believe about language and why do they believe so Heller Ethnographies are useful for in-depth descriptions and explana- tions, and almost always they involve the study of the groups of people communities of practice.
The ethnographic research tradition emphasizes that speakers beliefs, cultural norms and expectations influence their discourse interactions and in order to understand and interpret the social meanings that language use manifests, one needs to study the cultural and social environment with great care.
Empirical research The investigation of the relationships between language and society as such is an empirical science; i. John- stone 1—2 points out, that sociolinguists have their own analytical methods for collecting, describing and interpreting the data in a systematic way, whether the data consist of speech or signing or writing, by one person or many, on one topic or several. On the other hand, there is a need to differentiate between field methods i.
Both of these are important in sociolinguistic research. Empirical research is widely used throughout the social sciences. Patten 3 distinguishes four main questions one needs to answer before conducting an em- pirical study: 1. The empirical observations result in data. Experimental vs. Experi- mental research relies on the cause-and-effect paradigm it gives treatments to the research subjects , while non-experimental research does not give any treatments.
The most common experimental techniques used in sociolinguistic research are the matched-guise test and the identification task Drager, forthcoming. The matched- guise test is frequently used in studies investigating language attitudes, mainly linguistic stereotypes. Identification tasks usually are used to investigate the perception of differ- ent phonological phenomena such as vowel merger or chain shifts.
Non-experimental research is much more common in sociolinguistics. It entails both quantitative surveys, polls and qualitative ethnography, discourse analysis studies. For quantitative studies the researchers gather data that allows statistical analy- sis, while in qualitative studies the researchers gather data that allows content analysis the most usual form of such studies is the semi-structured interview.
Example 1. Experimental study. Research question: whether dialect discrimination is possible by using phonetic cues alone, and if it is possible, what cues trigger discrimination.
The study ran four different experiments. Experiment 1. Trying to rent an apartment in San Francisco. Research question: whether housing discrimination is exhibited in the absence of visual cues. Test hypothesis: there is a relation between the racial and ethnic constituency of a geographic area and the success of renting an apartment by dialect type. Baugh telephoned the landlords three different times, each time using different dialect.
Macro-linguistic cues as indicators of ethnic identity. Research question: whether dialect identification is possible at the macro-linguistic and sentential level. Hypothesis: these guises are identifiable at the same rate as nontridialectal ones. All three guises were judged as being representative of the target dialect. Experiment 3. Ability to recognize dialects at micro-linguistic level. Research question: How do dialects differ in pronunciation? How do listeners identify dialects by pronunciation?
Null hypothesis: there is no difference between the dialects by identification. Hypothesis: the phonetic features in a short portion of speech are sufficient to trigger identification across dialects. This word lacks the environment in which the researchers expected dialectal variations. The experiment was conducted with 50 undergraduate stu- dents at the University of Delaware. All the participants were Caucasian native speakers of SAE.
Two sets of tokens were presented to each participant.
Kendall, Tyler b. Data Preservation and Access. New York: Routledge. Kendall, Tyler a. Palgrave Macmillan. Book at: Palgrave Macmillan , Amazon , Supporting Website.
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Foreword: Observing the Observers Part I: Research Design Part II: Generating New Data Part III: Working with and Preserving Existing Data Part IV: Sharing.
The LDC Institute is a seminar series on issues broadly related to linguistics, computer science, natural language processing and human language technology development. Featured speakers include researchers from LDC, the Penn community and distinguished scholars from around the globe. CDIs are parent-completed questionnaires that assess children's gestural, lexical, and grammatical development from months.
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On the Offensive " This book sheds light on the derogatory phrases, insults, slurs, stereotypes, tropes and more that make up linguistic discrimination. Each chapter addresses a different area of prejudice: race and ethnicity; gender identity; sexuality; religion; health and disability; physical appearance; and age. Reviewer Login. Publishing Partner: Publisher Login. New from Cambridge University Press!
The second edition of Data Collection in Sociolinguistics: Methods and Applications continues to provide up-to-date, succinct, relevant, and informative discussion about methods of data collection in sociolinguistic research.